Effect of temperature on composite polymerization stress and degree of conversion

Fernanda C. Calheiros, Márcia Daronch, Frederick A. Rueggeberg, Roberto R. Braga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective To test the following hypotheses: (1) degree of conversion (DC) and polymerization stress (PS) increase with composite temperature (2) reduced light-exposure applied to pre-heated composites produces similar conversion as room temperature with decreased PS. Methods Composite specimens (diameter: 5 mm, height: 2 mm) were tested isothermally at 22 °C (control), 40 °C, and 60 °C using light-exposures of 5 or 20 s (control). DC was accessed 5 min after light initiation by FTIR at the specimen bottom surface. Maximum and final PS were determined, also isothermally, for 5 min on a universal testing machine. Non-isothermal stress was also measured with composite maintained at 22 °C or 60 °C, and irradiated for 20 s at 30 °C. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA/Tukey and Student's t-test (α = 5%). Results Both DC and isothermal maximum stress increased with temperature (p < 0.001) and exposure duration (p < 0.001). Isothermal maximum/final stress (MPa) were 3.4 ± 2.0b/3.4 ± 2.0A (22 °C), 3.7 ± 1.5b/3.6 ± 1.4A (40 °C) and 5.1 ± 2.0a/4.0 ± 1.6A (60 °C). Conversion values (%) were 39.2 ± 7.1c (22 °C), 50.0 ± 5.4b (40 °C) and 58.5 ± 5.7a (60 °C). The reduction of light exposure duration (from 20 s to 5 s) with pre-heated composite yielded the same or significantly higher conversion (%) than control (22 °C, 20 s/control: 45.4 ± 1.8b, 40 °C, 5 s s: 45.1 ± 0.5b, 60 °C, 5 s s: 53.7 ± 2.7a, p < 0.01). Non-Isothermal conditions showed significantly higher stress for 60 °C than 22 °C (in MPa, maximum: 4.7 ± 0.5 and 3.7 ± 0.4, final: 4.6 ± 0.6 and 3.6 ± 0.4, respectively). Clinical significance: Increasing composite temperature allows for reduced exposure duration and lower polymerization stress (both maximum and final) while maintaining or increasing degree of conversion.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)613-618
Number of pages6
JournalDental Materials
Volume30
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2014

Keywords

  • Composite resin
  • Degree of conversion
  • Polymerization stress
  • Pre-heated composites

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Dentistry(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials

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