Effect of temperature on composite polymerization stress and degree of conversion

Fernanda C. Calheiros, Márcia Daronch, Frederick Rueggeberg, Roberto R. Braga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective To test the following hypotheses: (1) degree of conversion (DC) and polymerization stress (PS) increase with composite temperature (2) reduced light-exposure applied to pre-heated composites produces similar conversion as room temperature with decreased PS. Methods Composite specimens (diameter: 5 mm, height: 2 mm) were tested isothermally at 22 °C (control), 40 °C, and 60 °C using light-exposures of 5 or 20 s (control). DC was accessed 5 min after light initiation by FTIR at the specimen bottom surface. Maximum and final PS were determined, also isothermally, for 5 min on a universal testing machine. Non-isothermal stress was also measured with composite maintained at 22 °C or 60 °C, and irradiated for 20 s at 30 °C. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA/Tukey and Student's t-test (α = 5%). Results Both DC and isothermal maximum stress increased with temperature (p < 0.001) and exposure duration (p < 0.001). Isothermal maximum/final stress (MPa) were 3.4 ± 2.0b/3.4 ± 2.0A (22 °C), 3.7 ± 1.5b/3.6 ± 1.4A (40 °C) and 5.1 ± 2.0a/4.0 ± 1.6A (60 °C). Conversion values (%) were 39.2 ± 7.1c (22 °C), 50.0 ± 5.4b (40 °C) and 58.5 ± 5.7a (60 °C). The reduction of light exposure duration (from 20 s to 5 s) with pre-heated composite yielded the same or significantly higher conversion (%) than control (22 °C, 20 s/control: 45.4 ± 1.8b, 40 °C, 5 s s: 45.1 ± 0.5b, 60 °C, 5 s s: 53.7 ± 2.7a, p < 0.01). Non-Isothermal conditions showed significantly higher stress for 60 °C than 22 °C (in MPa, maximum: 4.7 ± 0.5 and 3.7 ± 0.4, final: 4.6 ± 0.6 and 3.6 ± 0.4, respectively). Clinical significance: Increasing composite temperature allows for reduced exposure duration and lower polymerization stress (both maximum and final) while maintaining or increasing degree of conversion.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)613-618
Number of pages6
JournalDental Materials
Volume30
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014

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Polymerization
Light
Temperature
Composite materials
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
Analysis of Variance
Students
Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
Testing

Keywords

  • Composite resin
  • Degree of conversion
  • Polymerization stress
  • Pre-heated composites

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Dentistry(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials

Cite this

Effect of temperature on composite polymerization stress and degree of conversion. / Calheiros, Fernanda C.; Daronch, Márcia; Rueggeberg, Frederick; Braga, Roberto R.

In: Dental Materials, Vol. 30, No. 6, 01.01.2014, p. 613-618.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Calheiros, Fernanda C. ; Daronch, Márcia ; Rueggeberg, Frederick ; Braga, Roberto R. / Effect of temperature on composite polymerization stress and degree of conversion. In: Dental Materials. 2014 ; Vol. 30, No. 6. pp. 613-618.
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abstract = "Objective To test the following hypotheses: (1) degree of conversion (DC) and polymerization stress (PS) increase with composite temperature (2) reduced light-exposure applied to pre-heated composites produces similar conversion as room temperature with decreased PS. Methods Composite specimens (diameter: 5 mm, height: 2 mm) were tested isothermally at 22 °C (control), 40 °C, and 60 °C using light-exposures of 5 or 20 s (control). DC was accessed 5 min after light initiation by FTIR at the specimen bottom surface. Maximum and final PS were determined, also isothermally, for 5 min on a universal testing machine. Non-isothermal stress was also measured with composite maintained at 22 °C or 60 °C, and irradiated for 20 s at 30 °C. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA/Tukey and Student's t-test (α = 5{\%}). Results Both DC and isothermal maximum stress increased with temperature (p < 0.001) and exposure duration (p < 0.001). Isothermal maximum/final stress (MPa) were 3.4 ± 2.0b/3.4 ± 2.0A (22 °C), 3.7 ± 1.5b/3.6 ± 1.4A (40 °C) and 5.1 ± 2.0a/4.0 ± 1.6A (60 °C). Conversion values ({\%}) were 39.2 ± 7.1c (22 °C), 50.0 ± 5.4b (40 °C) and 58.5 ± 5.7a (60 °C). The reduction of light exposure duration (from 20 s to 5 s) with pre-heated composite yielded the same or significantly higher conversion ({\%}) than control (22 °C, 20 s/control: 45.4 ± 1.8b, 40 °C, 5 s s: 45.1 ± 0.5b, 60 °C, 5 s s: 53.7 ± 2.7a, p < 0.01). Non-Isothermal conditions showed significantly higher stress for 60 °C than 22 °C (in MPa, maximum: 4.7 ± 0.5 and 3.7 ± 0.4, final: 4.6 ± 0.6 and 3.6 ± 0.4, respectively). Clinical significance: Increasing composite temperature allows for reduced exposure duration and lower polymerization stress (both maximum and final) while maintaining or increasing degree of conversion.",
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AU - Rueggeberg, Frederick

AU - Braga, Roberto R.

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Y1 - 2014/1/1

N2 - Objective To test the following hypotheses: (1) degree of conversion (DC) and polymerization stress (PS) increase with composite temperature (2) reduced light-exposure applied to pre-heated composites produces similar conversion as room temperature with decreased PS. Methods Composite specimens (diameter: 5 mm, height: 2 mm) were tested isothermally at 22 °C (control), 40 °C, and 60 °C using light-exposures of 5 or 20 s (control). DC was accessed 5 min after light initiation by FTIR at the specimen bottom surface. Maximum and final PS were determined, also isothermally, for 5 min on a universal testing machine. Non-isothermal stress was also measured with composite maintained at 22 °C or 60 °C, and irradiated for 20 s at 30 °C. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA/Tukey and Student's t-test (α = 5%). Results Both DC and isothermal maximum stress increased with temperature (p < 0.001) and exposure duration (p < 0.001). Isothermal maximum/final stress (MPa) were 3.4 ± 2.0b/3.4 ± 2.0A (22 °C), 3.7 ± 1.5b/3.6 ± 1.4A (40 °C) and 5.1 ± 2.0a/4.0 ± 1.6A (60 °C). Conversion values (%) were 39.2 ± 7.1c (22 °C), 50.0 ± 5.4b (40 °C) and 58.5 ± 5.7a (60 °C). The reduction of light exposure duration (from 20 s to 5 s) with pre-heated composite yielded the same or significantly higher conversion (%) than control (22 °C, 20 s/control: 45.4 ± 1.8b, 40 °C, 5 s s: 45.1 ± 0.5b, 60 °C, 5 s s: 53.7 ± 2.7a, p < 0.01). Non-Isothermal conditions showed significantly higher stress for 60 °C than 22 °C (in MPa, maximum: 4.7 ± 0.5 and 3.7 ± 0.4, final: 4.6 ± 0.6 and 3.6 ± 0.4, respectively). Clinical significance: Increasing composite temperature allows for reduced exposure duration and lower polymerization stress (both maximum and final) while maintaining or increasing degree of conversion.

AB - Objective To test the following hypotheses: (1) degree of conversion (DC) and polymerization stress (PS) increase with composite temperature (2) reduced light-exposure applied to pre-heated composites produces similar conversion as room temperature with decreased PS. Methods Composite specimens (diameter: 5 mm, height: 2 mm) were tested isothermally at 22 °C (control), 40 °C, and 60 °C using light-exposures of 5 or 20 s (control). DC was accessed 5 min after light initiation by FTIR at the specimen bottom surface. Maximum and final PS were determined, also isothermally, for 5 min on a universal testing machine. Non-isothermal stress was also measured with composite maintained at 22 °C or 60 °C, and irradiated for 20 s at 30 °C. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA/Tukey and Student's t-test (α = 5%). Results Both DC and isothermal maximum stress increased with temperature (p < 0.001) and exposure duration (p < 0.001). Isothermal maximum/final stress (MPa) were 3.4 ± 2.0b/3.4 ± 2.0A (22 °C), 3.7 ± 1.5b/3.6 ± 1.4A (40 °C) and 5.1 ± 2.0a/4.0 ± 1.6A (60 °C). Conversion values (%) were 39.2 ± 7.1c (22 °C), 50.0 ± 5.4b (40 °C) and 58.5 ± 5.7a (60 °C). The reduction of light exposure duration (from 20 s to 5 s) with pre-heated composite yielded the same or significantly higher conversion (%) than control (22 °C, 20 s/control: 45.4 ± 1.8b, 40 °C, 5 s s: 45.1 ± 0.5b, 60 °C, 5 s s: 53.7 ± 2.7a, p < 0.01). Non-Isothermal conditions showed significantly higher stress for 60 °C than 22 °C (in MPa, maximum: 4.7 ± 0.5 and 3.7 ± 0.4, final: 4.6 ± 0.6 and 3.6 ± 0.4, respectively). Clinical significance: Increasing composite temperature allows for reduced exposure duration and lower polymerization stress (both maximum and final) while maintaining or increasing degree of conversion.

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KW - Degree of conversion

KW - Polymerization stress

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