Effect of temperature on the degree of conversion and working time of dual-cured resin cements exposed to different curing conditions

M. Oliveira, P. F. Cesar, M. Giannini, Frederick Rueggeberg, J. Rodrigues, C. A. Arrais

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Objectives: This study evaluated the degree of conversion (DC) and working time (WT) of two commercial, dual-cured resin cements polymerized at varying temperatures and under different curing-light accessible conditions, using Fourier transformed infrared analysis (FTIR). Materials and Methods: Calibra (Cal; Dentsply Caulk) and Variolink II (Ivoclar Vivadent) were tested at 25°C or preheated to 37°C or 50°C and applied to a similar-temperature surface of a horizontal attenuated-total-reflectance unit (ATR) attached to an infrared spectrometer. The products were polymerized using one of four conditions: direct light exposure only (600 mW/cm2) through a glass slide or through a 1.5- or 3.0-mm-thick ceramic disc (A2 shade, IPS e.max, Ivoclar Vivadent) or allowed to self-cure in the absence of light curing. FTIR spectra were recorded for 20 min (1 spectrum/s, 16 scans/spectrum, resolution 4 cm-1) immediately after application to the ATR. DC was calculated using standard techniques of observing changes in aliphatic-to-aromatic peak ratios precuring and 20-min postcuring as well as during each 1-second interval. Time-based monomer conversion analysis was used to determine WT at each temperature. DC and WT data (n=6) were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc test (p=0.05). Results: Higher temperatures increased DC regardless of curing mode and product. For Calibra, only the 3-mm-thick ceramic group showed lower DC than the other groups at 25°C (p=0.01830), while no significant difference was observed among groups at 37°C and 50°C. For Variolink, the 3-mm-thick ceramic group showed lower DC than the 1-mm-thick group only at 25°C, while the self-cure group showed lower DC than the others at all temperatures (p =0.00001). WT decreased with increasing temperature: at 37°C near 70% reduction and at 50°C near 90% for both products, with WT reduction reaching clinically inappropriate times in some cases (p =0.00001). Conclusion: Elevated temperature during polymerization of dual-cured cements increased DC. WT was reduced with elevated temperature, but the extent of reduction might not be clinically acceptable.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)370-379
Number of pages10
JournalOperative dentistry
Volume37
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2012

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Resin Cements
Temperature
Ceramics
Light
varespladib methyl
Polymerization
Glass
Spectrum Analysis
Analysis of Variance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)

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Effect of temperature on the degree of conversion and working time of dual-cured resin cements exposed to different curing conditions. / Oliveira, M.; Cesar, P. F.; Giannini, M.; Rueggeberg, Frederick; Rodrigues, J.; Arrais, C. A.

In: Operative dentistry, Vol. 37, No. 4, 01.07.2012, p. 370-379.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Oliveira, M. ; Cesar, P. F. ; Giannini, M. ; Rueggeberg, Frederick ; Rodrigues, J. ; Arrais, C. A. / Effect of temperature on the degree of conversion and working time of dual-cured resin cements exposed to different curing conditions. In: Operative dentistry. 2012 ; Vol. 37, No. 4. pp. 370-379.
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abstract = "Objectives: This study evaluated the degree of conversion (DC) and working time (WT) of two commercial, dual-cured resin cements polymerized at varying temperatures and under different curing-light accessible conditions, using Fourier transformed infrared analysis (FTIR). Materials and Methods: Calibra (Cal; Dentsply Caulk) and Variolink II (Ivoclar Vivadent) were tested at 25°C or preheated to 37°C or 50°C and applied to a similar-temperature surface of a horizontal attenuated-total-reflectance unit (ATR) attached to an infrared spectrometer. The products were polymerized using one of four conditions: direct light exposure only (600 mW/cm2) through a glass slide or through a 1.5- or 3.0-mm-thick ceramic disc (A2 shade, IPS e.max, Ivoclar Vivadent) or allowed to self-cure in the absence of light curing. FTIR spectra were recorded for 20 min (1 spectrum/s, 16 scans/spectrum, resolution 4 cm-1) immediately after application to the ATR. DC was calculated using standard techniques of observing changes in aliphatic-to-aromatic peak ratios precuring and 20-min postcuring as well as during each 1-second interval. Time-based monomer conversion analysis was used to determine WT at each temperature. DC and WT data (n=6) were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc test (p=0.05). Results: Higher temperatures increased DC regardless of curing mode and product. For Calibra, only the 3-mm-thick ceramic group showed lower DC than the other groups at 25°C (p=0.01830), while no significant difference was observed among groups at 37°C and 50°C. For Variolink, the 3-mm-thick ceramic group showed lower DC than the 1-mm-thick group only at 25°C, while the self-cure group showed lower DC than the others at all temperatures (p =0.00001). WT decreased with increasing temperature: at 37°C near 70{\%} reduction and at 50°C near 90{\%} for both products, with WT reduction reaching clinically inappropriate times in some cases (p =0.00001). Conclusion: Elevated temperature during polymerization of dual-cured cements increased DC. WT was reduced with elevated temperature, but the extent of reduction might not be clinically acceptable.",
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AU - Cesar, P. F.

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AU - Rueggeberg, Frederick

AU - Rodrigues, J.

AU - Arrais, C. A.

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N2 - Objectives: This study evaluated the degree of conversion (DC) and working time (WT) of two commercial, dual-cured resin cements polymerized at varying temperatures and under different curing-light accessible conditions, using Fourier transformed infrared analysis (FTIR). Materials and Methods: Calibra (Cal; Dentsply Caulk) and Variolink II (Ivoclar Vivadent) were tested at 25°C or preheated to 37°C or 50°C and applied to a similar-temperature surface of a horizontal attenuated-total-reflectance unit (ATR) attached to an infrared spectrometer. The products were polymerized using one of four conditions: direct light exposure only (600 mW/cm2) through a glass slide or through a 1.5- or 3.0-mm-thick ceramic disc (A2 shade, IPS e.max, Ivoclar Vivadent) or allowed to self-cure in the absence of light curing. FTIR spectra were recorded for 20 min (1 spectrum/s, 16 scans/spectrum, resolution 4 cm-1) immediately after application to the ATR. DC was calculated using standard techniques of observing changes in aliphatic-to-aromatic peak ratios precuring and 20-min postcuring as well as during each 1-second interval. Time-based monomer conversion analysis was used to determine WT at each temperature. DC and WT data (n=6) were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc test (p=0.05). Results: Higher temperatures increased DC regardless of curing mode and product. For Calibra, only the 3-mm-thick ceramic group showed lower DC than the other groups at 25°C (p=0.01830), while no significant difference was observed among groups at 37°C and 50°C. For Variolink, the 3-mm-thick ceramic group showed lower DC than the 1-mm-thick group only at 25°C, while the self-cure group showed lower DC than the others at all temperatures (p =0.00001). WT decreased with increasing temperature: at 37°C near 70% reduction and at 50°C near 90% for both products, with WT reduction reaching clinically inappropriate times in some cases (p =0.00001). Conclusion: Elevated temperature during polymerization of dual-cured cements increased DC. WT was reduced with elevated temperature, but the extent of reduction might not be clinically acceptable.

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