Elevated plasma transforming growth factor-β1 levels in breast cancer patients decrease after surgical removal of the tumor

F. M. Kong, M. S. Anscher, T. Murase, B. D. Abbott, J. D. Iglehart, R. L. Jirtle

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Abstract

Objective: The authors determined whether untreated breast cancer patients have elevated plasma levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Summary Background Data: Increased plasma TGF-β1 levels recently were found after chemotherapy in patients with advanced breast cancer. However, it currently is unknown whether this elevation in plasma TGF-β1 is caused by chemotherapy-induced normal tissue damage or whether it results from the presence of the tumor. Methods: An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure plasma TGF-β1 levels in 26 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients before and after definitive surgery. Patients were grouped by postoperative tumor status: 1) negative lymph nodes (group 1); 2) positive lymph nodes (group 2); and 3) overt residual disease (group 3). The site of TGF-β1 production in the tumors was localized by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Results: Plasma TGF-β1 levels were elevated preoperatively in 81% of the patients; TGF-β2 and TGF-β3 were undetectable. The preoperative TGF-β1 levels in the three patient groups were similar; however, the postoperative plasma TGF-β1 levels differed by disease status. The mean plasma TGF-β1 level in group 1 (n = 12) normalized after surgery (19.3 ± 3.2 vs. 5.5 ± 1.0 ng/mL, p < 0.081). In contrast, the mean plasma TGF-β1 levels remained above normal in both group 2 (n = 9) and group 3 (n = 5) after surgery. Transforming growth factor-β1 expression was found to be preferentially increased in the tumor stroma. Conclusions: Breast tumors result in increased plasma TGF-β1 levels in 81% of patients. After surgical removal of the primary tumor, the plasma TGF-β1 level normalizes in the majority of patients; persistently elevated levels correlate with the presence of lymph node metastases or overt residual tumor. These findings suggest that the usefulness of TGF-β1 as a potential plasma marker for breast tumors deserves further study.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)155-162
Number of pages8
JournalAnnals of Surgery
Volume222
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1995

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Transforming Growth Factors
Breast Neoplasms
Neoplasms
Lymph Nodes
Drug Therapy
Residual Neoplasm
In Situ Hybridization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

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Elevated plasma transforming growth factor-β1 levels in breast cancer patients decrease after surgical removal of the tumor. / Kong, F. M.; Anscher, M. S.; Murase, T.; Abbott, B. D.; Iglehart, J. D.; Jirtle, R. L.

In: Annals of Surgery, Vol. 222, No. 2, 01.01.1995, p. 155-162.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kong, F. M. ; Anscher, M. S. ; Murase, T. ; Abbott, B. D. ; Iglehart, J. D. ; Jirtle, R. L. / Elevated plasma transforming growth factor-β1 levels in breast cancer patients decrease after surgical removal of the tumor. In: Annals of Surgery. 1995 ; Vol. 222, No. 2. pp. 155-162.
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abstract = "Objective: The authors determined whether untreated breast cancer patients have elevated plasma levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Summary Background Data: Increased plasma TGF-β1 levels recently were found after chemotherapy in patients with advanced breast cancer. However, it currently is unknown whether this elevation in plasma TGF-β1 is caused by chemotherapy-induced normal tissue damage or whether it results from the presence of the tumor. Methods: An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure plasma TGF-β1 levels in 26 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients before and after definitive surgery. Patients were grouped by postoperative tumor status: 1) negative lymph nodes (group 1); 2) positive lymph nodes (group 2); and 3) overt residual disease (group 3). The site of TGF-β1 production in the tumors was localized by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Results: Plasma TGF-β1 levels were elevated preoperatively in 81{\%} of the patients; TGF-β2 and TGF-β3 were undetectable. The preoperative TGF-β1 levels in the three patient groups were similar; however, the postoperative plasma TGF-β1 levels differed by disease status. The mean plasma TGF-β1 level in group 1 (n = 12) normalized after surgery (19.3 ± 3.2 vs. 5.5 ± 1.0 ng/mL, p < 0.081). In contrast, the mean plasma TGF-β1 levels remained above normal in both group 2 (n = 9) and group 3 (n = 5) after surgery. Transforming growth factor-β1 expression was found to be preferentially increased in the tumor stroma. Conclusions: Breast tumors result in increased plasma TGF-β1 levels in 81{\%} of patients. After surgical removal of the primary tumor, the plasma TGF-β1 level normalizes in the majority of patients; persistently elevated levels correlate with the presence of lymph node metastases or overt residual tumor. These findings suggest that the usefulness of TGF-β1 as a potential plasma marker for breast tumors deserves further study.",
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AU - Anscher, M. S.

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AU - Abbott, B. D.

AU - Iglehart, J. D.

AU - Jirtle, R. L.

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AB - Objective: The authors determined whether untreated breast cancer patients have elevated plasma levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Summary Background Data: Increased plasma TGF-β1 levels recently were found after chemotherapy in patients with advanced breast cancer. However, it currently is unknown whether this elevation in plasma TGF-β1 is caused by chemotherapy-induced normal tissue damage or whether it results from the presence of the tumor. Methods: An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure plasma TGF-β1 levels in 26 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients before and after definitive surgery. Patients were grouped by postoperative tumor status: 1) negative lymph nodes (group 1); 2) positive lymph nodes (group 2); and 3) overt residual disease (group 3). The site of TGF-β1 production in the tumors was localized by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Results: Plasma TGF-β1 levels were elevated preoperatively in 81% of the patients; TGF-β2 and TGF-β3 were undetectable. The preoperative TGF-β1 levels in the three patient groups were similar; however, the postoperative plasma TGF-β1 levels differed by disease status. The mean plasma TGF-β1 level in group 1 (n = 12) normalized after surgery (19.3 ± 3.2 vs. 5.5 ± 1.0 ng/mL, p < 0.081). In contrast, the mean plasma TGF-β1 levels remained above normal in both group 2 (n = 9) and group 3 (n = 5) after surgery. Transforming growth factor-β1 expression was found to be preferentially increased in the tumor stroma. Conclusions: Breast tumors result in increased plasma TGF-β1 levels in 81% of patients. After surgical removal of the primary tumor, the plasma TGF-β1 level normalizes in the majority of patients; persistently elevated levels correlate with the presence of lymph node metastases or overt residual tumor. These findings suggest that the usefulness of TGF-β1 as a potential plasma marker for breast tumors deserves further study.

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