Elimination, via high-rate laser dilatometry, of structural relaxation during thermal expansion measurement of dental porcelains

S. S. Khajotia, J. R. Mackert, S. W. Twiggs, C. M. Russell, A. L. Williams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Thermal expansion measurement of glassy materials is complicated by thermal history effects. Excess volume - trapped in quenched dental porcelains after firing - collapses via structural relaxation on first slow heating during conventional dilatometry, making the thermal expansion coefficient (α) obtained on first heating unreliable. The purpose of this study was to determine whether porcelain thermal expansion measurement at high thermal rates could minimize the influence of thermal history. Methods: Eight thermal expansion specimens each of six body porcelains and the Component No.1 (leucite-containing) frit prepared according to the patent by Weinstein et al. (US Patent No. 3,052,982) were subjected to three heat-cool conventional dilatometry runs at 3°C/ min, while eight thermal expansion specimens of each porcelain were reserved as untreated controls. Eight hollow, cylindrical specimens of the same brands were subjected to three heat-cool laser dilatometer thermal expansion runs at 600°C/min, while eight cylindrical specimens of each porcelain were reserved as untreated controls. Thermal expansion data (25-500°C) of all specimens were subjected to repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: The α obtained on first slow heating was significantly lower than values for succeeding slow heat and cool runs in all porcelains (P < 0.001). High-rate α obtained on first heating was not significantly different from values of succeeding heat and cool runs in all porcelains (P > 0.05). Significance: Conventional dilatometer measurements demonstrated occurrence of structural relaxation, as evidenced by the significant difference in the first heating and subsequent runs. High-rate laser dilatometry eliminated structural relaxation, thereby providing a thermal expansion measurement that is free of interference from thermal history effects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)390-396
Number of pages7
JournalDental Materials
Volume15
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1999

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Dental Porcelain
Structural relaxation
Porcelain
Thermal expansion
Lasers
Hot Temperature
Heating
Dilatometers
Analysis of variance (ANOVA)

Keywords

  • Dental porcelains
  • Laser dilatometry
  • Thermal expansion measurement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Dentistry(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials

Cite this

Elimination, via high-rate laser dilatometry, of structural relaxation during thermal expansion measurement of dental porcelains. / Khajotia, S. S.; Mackert, J. R.; Twiggs, S. W.; Russell, C. M.; Williams, A. L.

In: Dental Materials, Vol. 15, No. 6, 01.01.1999, p. 390-396.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Khajotia, S. S. ; Mackert, J. R. ; Twiggs, S. W. ; Russell, C. M. ; Williams, A. L. / Elimination, via high-rate laser dilatometry, of structural relaxation during thermal expansion measurement of dental porcelains. In: Dental Materials. 1999 ; Vol. 15, No. 6. pp. 390-396.
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abstract = "Thermal expansion measurement of glassy materials is complicated by thermal history effects. Excess volume - trapped in quenched dental porcelains after firing - collapses via structural relaxation on first slow heating during conventional dilatometry, making the thermal expansion coefficient (α) obtained on first heating unreliable. The purpose of this study was to determine whether porcelain thermal expansion measurement at high thermal rates could minimize the influence of thermal history. Methods: Eight thermal expansion specimens each of six body porcelains and the Component No.1 (leucite-containing) frit prepared according to the patent by Weinstein et al. (US Patent No. 3,052,982) were subjected to three heat-cool conventional dilatometry runs at 3°C/ min, while eight thermal expansion specimens of each porcelain were reserved as untreated controls. Eight hollow, cylindrical specimens of the same brands were subjected to three heat-cool laser dilatometer thermal expansion runs at 600°C/min, while eight cylindrical specimens of each porcelain were reserved as untreated controls. Thermal expansion data (25-500°C) of all specimens were subjected to repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: The α obtained on first slow heating was significantly lower than values for succeeding slow heat and cool runs in all porcelains (P < 0.001). High-rate α obtained on first heating was not significantly different from values of succeeding heat and cool runs in all porcelains (P > 0.05). Significance: Conventional dilatometer measurements demonstrated occurrence of structural relaxation, as evidenced by the significant difference in the first heating and subsequent runs. High-rate laser dilatometry eliminated structural relaxation, thereby providing a thermal expansion measurement that is free of interference from thermal history effects.",
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