Laboratory investigations in fresh cadaver heads demonstrated the feasibility of endoscopic techniques applicable to aesthetic surgery of the face, including the cheeks, the forehead, the orbit, the nose, and the nasal septum. Clinical experience with coronal brow lifting in 32 patients using endoscopic techniques is also presented. The elimination of the ear-to-ear coronal incision is an obvious advantage. The endoscopic approach accomplishes division and weakening of the corrugators, procerus, and frontalis muscles, as well as moderate elevation of the eyebrows. Excess skin is accommodated by dissecting the scalp posteriorly toward the occiput.
ASJC Scopus subject areas