Endothelial Adora2a Activation Promotes Blood-Brain Barrier Breakdown and Cognitive Impairment in Mice with Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance

Masaki Yamamoto, De Huang Guo, Caterina M. Hernandez, Alexis Michelle Stranahan

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Abstract

Obesity and insulin resistance elicit blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown in humans and animal models, but the relative contributions of the two pathologies remain poorly understood. These studies initially addressed the temporal progression of cerebrovascular dysfunction relative to dietary obesity or diet-induced insulin resistance in male mice. Obesity increased BBB permeability to the low molecular weight fluorophore sodium fluorescein (NaFl), whereas diet-induced insulin resistance increased permeability to both NaFl and Evans blue, which forms a high molecular weight complex with serum albumin. Serial section transmission electron microscopy analysis of hippocampal capillaries revealed that diabetes promotes involution of tight junctions, fenestration of endothelial cells, and pericyte regression. Chronic activation of adenosine receptor 2a (Adora2a) erodes tight junctions between endothelial cells of the cerebral vasculature in other models of chronic neuropathology, and we observed that acute Adora2a antagonism normalized BBB permeability in wild-type mice with diet-induced insulin resistance. Experiments in mice with inducible deletion of Adora2a in endothelial cells revealed protection against BBB breakdown with diet-induced insulin resistance, despite comparable metabolic dysfunction relative to nontransgenic littermates. Protection against BBB breakdown was associated with decreased vascular inflammation, recovery of hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and restoration of hippocampus-dependent memory. These findings indicate that Adora2a-mediated signaling in vascular endothelial cells disrupts the BBB in dietary obesity, and implicate cerebrovascular dysfunction as the underlying mechanism for deficits in synaptic plasticity and cognition with obesity and insulin resistance.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricts the entry of circulating factors into the brain, but obesity promotes BBB breakdown in humans and animal models. We used transgenic mice with resistance to BBB breakdown to investigate the role of neurovascular dysfunction in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced cognitive impairment. Transgenic mice with inducible ablation of Adora2a in endothelial cells were protected against BBB breakdown on HFD, despite comparable metabolic impairments relative to normal mice. Transgenic mice were also resistant to HFD-induced cognitive dysfunction and were protected against deficits in hippocampal synaptic plasticity. These findings indicate that Adora2a-mediated signaling in endothelial cells mediates obesity-induced BBB breakdown, and implicate cerebrovascular dysfunction as the mechanism for deficits in synaptic plasticity and cognition with obesity and diabetes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4179-4192
Number of pages14
JournalThe Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Volume39
Issue number21
DOIs
StatePublished - May 22 2019
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Blood-Brain Barrier
Insulin Resistance
Diet
Obesity
Neuronal Plasticity
Endothelial Cells
High Fat Diet
Transgenic Mice
Permeability
Tight Junctions
Cognition
Cognitive Dysfunction
Animal Models
Molecular Weight
Pericytes
Evans Blue
Purinergic P1 Receptors
Cytoprotection
Fluorescein
Transmission Electron Microscopy

Keywords

  • blood–brain barrier
  • diabetes
  • hippocampus
  • neurovascular
  • obesity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

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title = "Endothelial Adora2a Activation Promotes Blood-Brain Barrier Breakdown and Cognitive Impairment in Mice with Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance",
abstract = "Obesity and insulin resistance elicit blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown in humans and animal models, but the relative contributions of the two pathologies remain poorly understood. These studies initially addressed the temporal progression of cerebrovascular dysfunction relative to dietary obesity or diet-induced insulin resistance in male mice. Obesity increased BBB permeability to the low molecular weight fluorophore sodium fluorescein (NaFl), whereas diet-induced insulin resistance increased permeability to both NaFl and Evans blue, which forms a high molecular weight complex with serum albumin. Serial section transmission electron microscopy analysis of hippocampal capillaries revealed that diabetes promotes involution of tight junctions, fenestration of endothelial cells, and pericyte regression. Chronic activation of adenosine receptor 2a (Adora2a) erodes tight junctions between endothelial cells of the cerebral vasculature in other models of chronic neuropathology, and we observed that acute Adora2a antagonism normalized BBB permeability in wild-type mice with diet-induced insulin resistance. Experiments in mice with inducible deletion of Adora2a in endothelial cells revealed protection against BBB breakdown with diet-induced insulin resistance, despite comparable metabolic dysfunction relative to nontransgenic littermates. Protection against BBB breakdown was associated with decreased vascular inflammation, recovery of hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and restoration of hippocampus-dependent memory. These findings indicate that Adora2a-mediated signaling in vascular endothelial cells disrupts the BBB in dietary obesity, and implicate cerebrovascular dysfunction as the underlying mechanism for deficits in synaptic plasticity and cognition with obesity and insulin resistance.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricts the entry of circulating factors into the brain, but obesity promotes BBB breakdown in humans and animal models. We used transgenic mice with resistance to BBB breakdown to investigate the role of neurovascular dysfunction in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced cognitive impairment. Transgenic mice with inducible ablation of Adora2a in endothelial cells were protected against BBB breakdown on HFD, despite comparable metabolic impairments relative to normal mice. Transgenic mice were also resistant to HFD-induced cognitive dysfunction and were protected against deficits in hippocampal synaptic plasticity. These findings indicate that Adora2a-mediated signaling in endothelial cells mediates obesity-induced BBB breakdown, and implicate cerebrovascular dysfunction as the mechanism for deficits in synaptic plasticity and cognition with obesity and diabetes.",
keywords = "blood–brain barrier, diabetes, hippocampus, neurovascular, obesity",
author = "Masaki Yamamoto and Guo, {De Huang} and Hernandez, {Caterina M.} and Stranahan, {Alexis Michelle}",
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T1 - Endothelial Adora2a Activation Promotes Blood-Brain Barrier Breakdown and Cognitive Impairment in Mice with Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance

AU - Yamamoto, Masaki

AU - Guo, De Huang

AU - Hernandez, Caterina M.

AU - Stranahan, Alexis Michelle

PY - 2019/5/22

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N2 - Obesity and insulin resistance elicit blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown in humans and animal models, but the relative contributions of the two pathologies remain poorly understood. These studies initially addressed the temporal progression of cerebrovascular dysfunction relative to dietary obesity or diet-induced insulin resistance in male mice. Obesity increased BBB permeability to the low molecular weight fluorophore sodium fluorescein (NaFl), whereas diet-induced insulin resistance increased permeability to both NaFl and Evans blue, which forms a high molecular weight complex with serum albumin. Serial section transmission electron microscopy analysis of hippocampal capillaries revealed that diabetes promotes involution of tight junctions, fenestration of endothelial cells, and pericyte regression. Chronic activation of adenosine receptor 2a (Adora2a) erodes tight junctions between endothelial cells of the cerebral vasculature in other models of chronic neuropathology, and we observed that acute Adora2a antagonism normalized BBB permeability in wild-type mice with diet-induced insulin resistance. Experiments in mice with inducible deletion of Adora2a in endothelial cells revealed protection against BBB breakdown with diet-induced insulin resistance, despite comparable metabolic dysfunction relative to nontransgenic littermates. Protection against BBB breakdown was associated with decreased vascular inflammation, recovery of hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and restoration of hippocampus-dependent memory. These findings indicate that Adora2a-mediated signaling in vascular endothelial cells disrupts the BBB in dietary obesity, and implicate cerebrovascular dysfunction as the underlying mechanism for deficits in synaptic plasticity and cognition with obesity and insulin resistance.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricts the entry of circulating factors into the brain, but obesity promotes BBB breakdown in humans and animal models. We used transgenic mice with resistance to BBB breakdown to investigate the role of neurovascular dysfunction in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced cognitive impairment. Transgenic mice with inducible ablation of Adora2a in endothelial cells were protected against BBB breakdown on HFD, despite comparable metabolic impairments relative to normal mice. Transgenic mice were also resistant to HFD-induced cognitive dysfunction and were protected against deficits in hippocampal synaptic plasticity. These findings indicate that Adora2a-mediated signaling in endothelial cells mediates obesity-induced BBB breakdown, and implicate cerebrovascular dysfunction as the mechanism for deficits in synaptic plasticity and cognition with obesity and diabetes.

AB - Obesity and insulin resistance elicit blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown in humans and animal models, but the relative contributions of the two pathologies remain poorly understood. These studies initially addressed the temporal progression of cerebrovascular dysfunction relative to dietary obesity or diet-induced insulin resistance in male mice. Obesity increased BBB permeability to the low molecular weight fluorophore sodium fluorescein (NaFl), whereas diet-induced insulin resistance increased permeability to both NaFl and Evans blue, which forms a high molecular weight complex with serum albumin. Serial section transmission electron microscopy analysis of hippocampal capillaries revealed that diabetes promotes involution of tight junctions, fenestration of endothelial cells, and pericyte regression. Chronic activation of adenosine receptor 2a (Adora2a) erodes tight junctions between endothelial cells of the cerebral vasculature in other models of chronic neuropathology, and we observed that acute Adora2a antagonism normalized BBB permeability in wild-type mice with diet-induced insulin resistance. Experiments in mice with inducible deletion of Adora2a in endothelial cells revealed protection against BBB breakdown with diet-induced insulin resistance, despite comparable metabolic dysfunction relative to nontransgenic littermates. Protection against BBB breakdown was associated with decreased vascular inflammation, recovery of hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and restoration of hippocampus-dependent memory. These findings indicate that Adora2a-mediated signaling in vascular endothelial cells disrupts the BBB in dietary obesity, and implicate cerebrovascular dysfunction as the underlying mechanism for deficits in synaptic plasticity and cognition with obesity and insulin resistance.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricts the entry of circulating factors into the brain, but obesity promotes BBB breakdown in humans and animal models. We used transgenic mice with resistance to BBB breakdown to investigate the role of neurovascular dysfunction in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced cognitive impairment. Transgenic mice with inducible ablation of Adora2a in endothelial cells were protected against BBB breakdown on HFD, despite comparable metabolic impairments relative to normal mice. Transgenic mice were also resistant to HFD-induced cognitive dysfunction and were protected against deficits in hippocampal synaptic plasticity. These findings indicate that Adora2a-mediated signaling in endothelial cells mediates obesity-induced BBB breakdown, and implicate cerebrovascular dysfunction as the mechanism for deficits in synaptic plasticity and cognition with obesity and diabetes.

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