Damage-control surgery and open-abdomen is an acceptable-and often lifesaving-approach to the treatment of patients with severe trauma, abdominal compartment syndrome, necrotizing soft tissue catastrophes, and other abdominal disasters, when closing the abdomen is not possible, ill advised, or will have serious sequelae. However, common consequences of open-abdomen management include large abdominal wall defects, enterocutaneous fistulas (ECFs), and enteroatmospheric fistulas (EAFs). Furthermore, in such patients, a frozen and hostile abdomen (alone or combined with ECFs) is not uncommon. Adding biologic mesh to our surgical armamentarium has revolutionized hernia surgery.
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