Evaluation of several instrumentation techniques and irrigation methods on the percentage of untouched canal wall and accumulated dentine debris in C-shaped canals

Y. Zhao, W. Fan, T. Xu, Franklin Chi Meng Tay, J. L. Gutmann, B. Fan

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2 Scopus citations


Aim: To evaluate the effect of instrumentation using Reciproc Blue (RB; VDW, Munich, Germany) and XP-endo Shaper (XP-S; FKG Dentaire, La Chaux-deFonds, Switzerland) systems on the area of untouched canal wall (AUCW), accumulated hard-tissue debris (AHTD) and the efficacy of three irrigation protocols on percentage reductions (red%) of AHTD within C-shaped canals of mandibular molars. Methodology: Seventy mandibular molars with C-shaped canals were scanned, matched and assigned to two shaping groups (n = 35): RB and XP-S. Following instrumentation, specimens were triple-matched with respect to the amount of remaining debris and assigned to three irrigation subgroups (n = 10): syringe-and-needle irrigation (SNI), XP-endo Finisher (XP-F; FKG Dentaire) and passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI). The AUCW% and AHTD% after instrumentation and the red% of AHTD after irrigation were calculated from micro-computed tomography. Data were analysed using comparisons for two groups (RB vs. XP-S) or multiple subgroups followed by pairwise comparison procedures (SNI vs. XP-F vs. PUI) at α = 0.05. Results: For RB and XP-S, 33.04% and 30.45%, respectively, of the canal wall remained untouched (P > 0.05). For both groups, the apical third had larger AUCW% than the coronal third (P < 0.05). Instrumentation with RB left more debris (2.8%) than XP-S (1.1%) (P < 0.05). The PUI and XP-F subgroups had higher mean red% of AHTD than the SNI subgroup; the difference was significant for RB (P < 0.05) but not for XP-S. Conclusions: Both RB and XP-S systems were associated with similar AUCW after instrumenting C-shaped canals. RB left significantly greater levels of AHTD compared with XP-S. PUI and XP-F irrigation removed more debris than SNI when using the RB system.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1354-1365
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Endodontic Journal
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2019



  • C-shaped canal
  • hard-tissue debris
  • instrumentation
  • irrigation
  • mandibular molar
  • micro-CT

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)

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