Exon-intron structure, analysis of promoter region, and chromosomal localization of the human type 1 σ receptor gene

Puttur D Prasad, Hui W. Li, You Jun Fei, Malliga E. Ganapathy, Takuya Fujita, Lisa H. Plumley, Teresa L. Yang-Feng, Frederick H. Leibach, Vadivel Ganapathy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

157 Scopus citations


σ receptor is a protein that interacts with a variety of psychotomimetic drugs including cocaine and amphetamines and is believed to play an important role in the cellular functions of various tissues associated with the endocrine, immune, and nervous systems. Here we report on the structure and organization of the human gene coding for this receptor. The gene is ~7 kbp long and contains four exons, interrupted by three introns. Exon 3 is the shortest (93 bp), and exon 4 is the longest (1,132 bp). Among the introns, intron 3 is the longest (~1,250 bp). Exon 2 codes for the single transmembrane domain present in the receptor. 5' rapid amplification of cDNA end reactions with mRNA from the JAR human trophoblast cell line have identified 56 bp upstream of the translation start codon as the initiation site for transcription. This transcription start site has been confirmed by RNase protection analysis. Structural analysis of the 5' flanking region has revealed that the gene is TATA-less. This region, however, contains a CCAATC box in the reverse complement and several GC boxes that are recognition sites for SP1. There are also consensus sequences for the liver-specific transcription factor nuclear factor-1/L, for a variety of cytokine responsive factors, and for the xenobiotic responsive factor called the arylhydrocarbon receptor. Southern blot analysis of the genomic DNA from Chinese hamster-human and mouse-human hybrid cell lines and fluorescent in situ hybridization with human metaphase chromosome spreads have shown that the gene is located on human chromosome 9, band p13, a region known to be associated with different psychiatric disorders.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)443-451
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Neurochemistry
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1998


  • Chromosomal localization
  • Exon-intron organization
  • Gene structure
  • Promoter sequence
  • σ receptor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


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