This study monitored experimental peri-implant tissue breakdown around hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated titanium dental implants. Thirty-two HA-coated cylindrical implants, in groups of two, were bilaterally inserted in the posterior maxilla and mandible in 4 Macaco mulatta monkeys. Two months after healing-abutment connection, a 2-month plaque control program was initiated. Clinical and radiographic recordings and peri-implant submucosal microbial samples were then obtained (baseline). Cotton ligatures were next placed around the healing-abutments and plaque control measures were abandoned. Clinical and radiographic recordings were repeated at 5 and 10 months post-baseline. Microbial samples were repeated at 10 months post-baseline, and ligatures were removed. Clinical, radiographic, and microbial examinations were again repeated at 11 months post-baseline. Mean modified plaque index (mPI; P < 0.01), gingival index (GI; P < 0.01), and bleeding on probing (BOP; P < 0.05) scores increased over the plaque accumulation period. The mPI, and GI scores decreased after ligature removal (P < 0.001). Mean probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment level (AL) increased between baseline and the 5- and 10-month examinations (ΔPD 3.0 mm; ΔAL 2.7 mm; P < 0.05). PD values were reduced following ligature removal (P < 0.05). AL values and BP scores remained unchanged. A significant negative correlation was found between induced defect depth and width of keratinized mucosa at baseline (P = 0.03). At baseline, the submucosal microbiota was dominated by coccoid cells. Following ligature placement, the microbiota included a large proportion of Gram-negative anaerobic rods, predominantly Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacteroides forsythus, and Fusobacterium species as well as beta-hemolytic streptococci. Ligature removal had a limited effect on the composition of the submucosal microbiota. This non-human primate study indicates that ligature-enhanced plaque accumulation is a precursor of progressive peri-implant tissue breakdown around HA-coated implants. The associated microbiota resembles that of peri-implantitis and destructive periodontal disease in humans. This preclinical model may be useful to study modalities aimed at arresting peri-implant tissue breakdown and at regeneration of bone in peri-implantitis defects.
- Animal studies
- Dental implants
- Periodontal diseases/pathogenesis
ASJC Scopus subject areas