Expression of the cystine-glutamate exchanger (xc-) in retinal ganglion cells and regulation by nitric oxide and oxidative stress

Y. Dun, B. Mysona, T. Van Ells, L. Amarnath, M. Shamsul Ola, V. Ganapathy, S. B. Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

77 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The cystine-glutamate exchanger, system xc-, mediates the Na+-independent exchange of cystine into cells, coupled to the efflux of intracellular glutamate. System xc- plays a critical role in glutathione homeostasis. Early studies of brain suggested that system xc- was present primarily in astrocytes but not neurons. More recent work indicates that certain brain neurons have an active system xc-. In the retina, system xc - has been demonstrated in Müller and retinal pigment epithelial cells. We have recently suggested that two protein components of system x c-, xCT and 4F2hc, are present in ganglion cells of the intact retina. Here, we have used (1) molecular and immunohistochemical assays to determine whether system xc- is present in primary ganglion cells isolated from neonatal mouse retinas and (2) functional assays to determine whether its activity is regulated by oxidative stress in a retinal ganglion cell line (RGC-5). Primary mouse ganglion cells and RGC-5 cells express xCT and 4F2hc. RGC-5 cells take up [3H]glutamate in the absence of Na+, and this uptake is blocked by known substrates of system x c- (glutamate, cysteine, cystine, quisqualic acid). Treatment of RGC-5 cells with NO and reactive oxygen species donors leads to increased activity of system xc- associated with an increase in the maximal velocity of the transporter with no significant change in the substrate affinity. This is the first report of system xc - in primary retinal ganglion cells and RGC-5 cells. Oxidative stress upregulates this transport system in RGC-5 cells, and the process is associated with an increase in xCT mRNA and protein but no change in 4F2hc mRNA or protein.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)189-202
Number of pages14
JournalCell and Tissue Research
Volume324
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2006

Fingerprint

Oxidative stress
Cystine
Retinal Ganglion Cells
Glutamic Acid
Nitric Oxide
Oxidative Stress
Neurons
Assays
Brain
Quisqualic Acid
Ganglia
Messenger RNA
Proteins
Retinal Pigments
Retina
Substrates
Glutathione
Cysteine
Reactive Oxygen Species
Cells

Keywords

  • Cystine/glutamate exchanger
  • Mouse
  • Nitric oxide
  • Oxidative stress
  • Primary culture
  • Retinal ganglion cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Histology
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

Expression of the cystine-glutamate exchanger (xc-) in retinal ganglion cells and regulation by nitric oxide and oxidative stress. / Dun, Y.; Mysona, B.; Van Ells, T.; Amarnath, L.; Shamsul Ola, M.; Ganapathy, V.; Smith, S. B.

In: Cell and Tissue Research, Vol. 324, No. 2, 01.05.2006, p. 189-202.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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