The hybrid approach to management of hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) was developed as an alternative to neonatal Norwood surgery, providing a less invasive initial palliation for HLHS. We describe our experience in extending the concept of the hybrid procedure to palliate neonates with anatomically compromised systemic arterial blood flow in a variety of congenital cardiac anomalies and supporting its application as first-line palliation in centers developing their HLHS programs. Retrospective review of patients undergoing therapy for HLHS at a single institution from June 2008 to December 2014 was performed. Subject demographics, clinical and procedural data, along with follow-up, were collected. Thirteen patients had initial hybrid palliation for HLHS during the time frame indicated at a median age of 8 days (range 1–29 days) and median weight of 3.4 kg (range 2.4–4.6 kg). Diagnoses included typical HLHS (n = 6), right-dominant unbalanced atrioventricular septal defect with arch hypoplasia (n = 4), double outlet right ventricle [subpulmonic VSD (n = 1) and intact ventricular septum (n = 1)] with hypoplastic transverse aortic arch and borderline left ventricular dimensions. Standard approach with bilateral pulmonary artery banding and ductal stenting was carried out in all thirteen patients. Two patients required two ductal stents at the time of index procedure. There were no intraprocedural complications. Median intubation length post-procedure was 4 days (range 1–74 days). Median hospital stay post-procedure was 47 days (range 15–270 days). The overall mortality rate on follow-up through comprehensive stage 2 over the 6-year experience was 38 % (5 out of 13). Of note, the mortality rate was significantly lower in the latter 3 years of the study period when the procedure was adopted as a primary palliation for HLHS (14 % or 1 out of 7) compared to the initial 3-year period when it was reserved for higher risk cohorts (67 % or 4 out of 6). Median time to subsequent surgery was 3 months (range 1–4 months). One patient required further ductal stenting on follow-up and developed subsequently airway compression. On median follow-up of 24 months, two patients required pulmonary artery arterioplasty. The hybrid procedure may be used for palliation for a variety of cardiac lesions to avoid high-risk surgery in the neonatal period. This approach may be also an alternative in centers performing lower number of Norwood surgery, which has been associated with higher mortality.
- Borderline LV size
- Hybrid procedure
- Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine