Central nervous system (CNS) relapse is uncommon in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with the use of high-dose cytarabine containing chemotherapy regimens. The clinical and molecular features associated with a higher risk of CNS relapse are not well defined. We assessed the incidence and outcome of CNS relapses among 1245 patients with relapsed/refractory AML referred to our institution between 2000 and 2014. CNS leukemia relapse was observed in 51 patients (4.1%). Using a multivariate regression model and after adjusting for age, FLT3-ITD mutation (OR = 2.33; P =.02) and elevated LDH (>1000 IU/L, OR = 1.99; P =.04) were independent predictive factors for CNS relapse. Patients under 64 years of age with 0, 1, or 2 baseline adverse features had a probability of 3.8%, 7.0%-8.0%, and 13.9% for developing CNS disease, respectively. Our study identifies patients with AML at higher risk for CNS relapse in whom prophylactic CNS therapy may be warranted.
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