Family History of Breast Cancer and Mammographic Breast Density in Premenopausal Women

Yunan Han, Justin Xavier Moore, Graham A. Colditz, Adetunji T. Toriola

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Importance: Family history of breast cancer (FHBC) and mammographic breast density are independent risk factors for breast cancer, but the association of FHBC and mammographic breast density in premenopausal women is not well understood. Objectives: To investigate the association of FHBC and mammographic breast density in premenopausal women using both quantitative and qualitative measurements. Design, Setting, and Participants: This single-center cohort study examined 2 retrospective cohorts: a discovery set of 375 premenopausal women and a validation set of 14040 premenopausal women. Data from women in the discovery set was collected between December 2015 and October 2016, whereas data from women in the validation set was collected between June 2010 and December 2015. Data analysis was performed between June 2018 and June 2020. Exposures: Family history of breast cancer (FHBC). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were mammographic breast density measured quantitatively as volumetric percent density using Volpara (discovery set) and qualitatively using BI-RADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System) breast density (validation set). Multivariable regressions were performed using a log-transformed normal distribution for the discovery set and a logistic distribution for the validation set. Results: Of 14415 premenopausal women included in the study, the discovery set and validation set had similar characteristics (discovery set with FHBC: mean [SD] age, 47.1 [5.6] years; 15 [17.2%] were Black or African American women and 64 [73.6%] were non-Hispanic White women; discovery set with no FHBC: mean [SD] age, 47.7 [4.5] years; 87 [31.6%] were Black or African American women and 178 [64.7%] were non-Hispanic White women; validation set with FHBC: mean [SD] age, 46.8 [7.3] years; 720 [33.4%] were Black or African American women and 1378 [64.0%] were non-Hispanic White women]; validation set with no FHBC: mean [SD] age, 47.5 [6.1] years; 4572 [38.5%] were Black or African American women and 6632 [55.8%] were non-Hispanic White women]). In the discovery set, participants who had FHBC were more likely to have a higher mean volumetric percent density compared with participants with no FHBC (11.1% vs 9.0%). In the multivariable-adjusted model, volumetric percent density was 25% higher (odds ratio [OR], 1.25;95% CI, 1.12-1.41) in women with FHBC compared with women without FHBC; and 24% higher (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.10-1.40) in women who had 1 affected relative, but not significantly higher in women who had at least 2 affected relatives (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 0.95-2.07) compared with women with no relatives affected. In the validation set, women with a positive FHBC were more likely to have dense breasts (BI-RADS 3-4) compared with women with no FHBC (BI-RADS 3: 41.1% vs 38.8%; BI-RADS 4: 10.5% vs 7.7%). In the multivariable-adjusted model, the odds of having dense breasts (BI-RADS 3-4) were 30% higher (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.17-1.45) in women with FHBC compared with women without FHBC; and 29% higher (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.14-1.45) in women who had 1 affected relative, but not significantly higher in women who had at least 2 affected relatives (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 0.85-2.23) compared with women with no relatives affected. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, having an FHBC was positively associated with mammographic breast density in premenopausal women. Our findings highlight the heritable component of mammographic breast density and underscore the need to begin annual screening early in premenopausal women with a family history of breast cancer..

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere2148983
JournalJAMA network open
Volume5
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 17 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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