Final results of a phase 2, open-label study of indisulam, idarubicin, and cytarabine in patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome

Rita Assi, Hagop M. Kantarjian, Tapan M. Kadia, Naveen Pemmaraju, Elias Jabbour, Nitin Jain, Naval Daver, Zeev Estrov, Taisuke Uehara, Takashi Owa, Jorge E. Cortes, Gautam Borthakur

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Scopus citations

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Indisulam possesses anticancer properties through down-regulation of various cell-cycle checkpoint molecules, thereby blocking the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein and inducing p53 and p21. Indisulam exhibits synergy with nucleoside analogs and topoisomerase inhibitors. METHODS: The authors designed a phase 2 study of indisulam in combination with idarubicin and cytarabine in patients who had relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia AML and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome. In stage 1, patients received intravenous indisulam at 400 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 of a 28-day cycle. If they had no response, then patients received same dose schedule of indisulam followed by intravenous idarubicin 8 mg/m2 daily for 3 days and cytarabine 1.0 g/m2 over 24 hours daily on days 9 through 12 (for those aged < 60 years) or days 9 through 11 (for those aged > 60 years) of a 28-day cycle. Primary endpoints included the overall response rate, and secondary objectives included overall survival. RESULTS: Forty patients were enrolled. Of the 37 evaluable patients, 31 received indisulam with chemotherapy. Of these, 11 (35%) responded for a median duration of 5.3 months. The estimated 1-year overall survival rate was 51% for responders compared with 8 % for nonresponders (P <.001). The most common grade ≥3 nonhematologic toxicities were electrolyte abnormalities (50%) and febrile neutropenia (28%). CONCLUSIONS: The combination of indisulam with idarubicin and cytarabine yielded a 35% response rate in heavily pretreated patients with AML. With emerging data identifying the expression of DCAF15 (DDB1 and CUL4-associated factor 15) as a potential biomarker for activity, the combination of indisulam with idarubicin and cytarabine should be studied in a biomarker-driven trial or in patients who have splicing factor mutations. Cancer 2018;124:2758-65.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2758-2765
Number of pages8
JournalCancer
Volume124
Issue number13
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2018
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • acute myeloid leukemia (AML)
  • biomarker
  • cytarabine
  • idarubicin
  • indisulam
  • relapsed/refractory

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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    Assi, R., Kantarjian, H. M., Kadia, T. M., Pemmaraju, N., Jabbour, E., Jain, N., Daver, N., Estrov, Z., Uehara, T., Owa, T., Cortes, J. E., & Borthakur, G. (2018). Final results of a phase 2, open-label study of indisulam, idarubicin, and cytarabine in patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome. Cancer, 124(13), 2758-2765. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.31398