Flammer and Sjögren Syndromes: What and Why Is in Common?

Babak Baban, Olga Golubnitschaja

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Flammer syndrome (FS) occurs more frequently in females; its signs and symptoms are mainly linked to primary vascular dysregulation (PVD), increased sensitivity to various stimuli (stress, drugs, etc.) and altered sense regulation such as pain, smell and thirst perception. To this end, inflammation and immune disorders including autoimmunity are considered as a consequence of the abnormal vascular regulation processes. Decreased thirst feeling typical for FS-affected individuals may lead to extensive body dehydration resulting in increased risks for Sicca syndrome and breast cancer (BC), amongst others. Indeed, recent research demonstrated FS phenotype as being dominant in individuals with “dry mouth” syndrome even at very young age, vaginal dryness in both pre- and post-menopausal women, as well as BC patients with particularly pronounced FS phenotype in case of the aggressive metastatic disease. Further, FS-affected individuals to individual extent may be predisposed to a prolonged wound healing. Sjögren syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease characterised by a progressive Sicca syndrome, specific immunologic complex and/or significant infiltrate at minor salivary gland biopsy. SS is relatively frequent, with a clinical diagnosis predominantly amongst women. Its physiopathology is a complex battery of both genetic and environmental risk factors. If left untreated, SS may be associated with and/or may result in impaired wound healing, severe arthritis and development of several cancer types. Further, breast inflammatory patterns were reported in females affected by Sjögren syndrome. In this chapter we summarise the facts and hypotheses connecting FS and SS together and mechanisms potentially overlapping in both syndromes that might be of great clinical value. Multi-professional considerations presented here are an example for how to effectively enter the new era of preventive, predictive and personalised medicine benefiting the patients and healthcare system as the whole.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationAdvances in Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine
PublisherSpringer Science and Business Media B.V.
Number of pages10
StatePublished - 2019

Publication series

NameAdvances in Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine
ISSN (Print)2211-3495
ISSN (Electronic)2211-3509


  • Autoimmune disease
  • Breast cancer
  • Common mechanisms
  • Environment
  • Flammer syndrome
  • Gender
  • Genetic
  • Health policy
  • Inflammation
  • Patient stratification
  • Predictive preventive personalied medicine (PPPM)
  • Reciprocal relationship
  • Risks
  • Sicca syndrome
  • Sjögren syndrome
  • Stress response
  • Vascular dysregulation
  • Wound healing
  • Xerophthalmia
  • Xerostomia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)


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