Fluoride induces oxidative damage and SIRT1/autophagy through ROS-mediated JNK signaling

Maiko Suzuki, Cheryl Bandoski, John D Bartlett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

62 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Fluoride is an effective caries prophylactic, but at high doses can also be an environmental health hazard. Acute or chronic exposure to high fluoride doses can result in dental enamel and skeletal and soft tissue fluorosis. Dental fluorosis is manifested as mottled, discolored, porous enamel that is susceptible to dental caries. Fluoride induces cell stress, including endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress, which leads to impairment of ameloblasts responsible for dental enamel formation. Recently we reported that fluoride activates SIRT1 and autophagy as an adaptive response to protect cells from stress. However, it still remains unclear how SIRT1/autophagy is regulated in dental fluorosis. In this study, we demonstrate that fluoride exposure generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the resulting oxidative damage is counteracted by SIRT1/autophagy induction through c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling in ameloblasts. In the mouse-ameloblast-derived cell line LS8, fluoride induced ROS, mitochondrial damage including cytochrome-c release, up-regulation of UCP2, attenuation of ATP synthesis, and H2AX phosphorylation (γH2AX), which is a marker of DNA damage. We evaluated the effects of the ROS inhibitor N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and the JNK inhibitor SP600125 on fluoride-induced SIRT1/autophagy activation. NAC decreased fluoride-induced ROS generation and attenuated JNK and c-Jun phosphorylation. NAC decreased SIRT1 phosphorylation and formation of the autophagy marker LC3II, which resulted in an increase in the apoptosis mediators γH2AX and cleaved/activated caspase-3. SP600125 attenuated fluoride-induced SIRT1 phosphorylation, indicating that fluoride activates SIRT1/autophagy via the ROS-mediated JNK pathway. In enamel organs from rats or mice treated with 50, 100, or 125 ppm fluoride for 6 weeks, cytochrome-c release and the DNA damage markers 8-oxoguanine, p-ATM, and γH2AX were increased compared to those in controls (0 ppm fluoride). These results suggest that fluoride-induced ROS generation causes mitochondrial damage and DNA damage, which may lead to impairment of ameloblast function. To counteract this impairment, SIRT1/autophagy is induced via JNK signaling to protect cells/ameloblasts from fluoride-induced oxidative damage that may cause dental fluorosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)369-78
Number of pages10
JournalFree Radical Biology and Medicine
Volume89
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2015

Fingerprint

Autophagy
Fluorides
Reactive Oxygen Species
Phosphotransferases
Ameloblasts
Phosphorylation
Enamels
Dental Fluorosis
Acetylcysteine
Dental Enamel
DNA Damage
JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Cytochromes c
DNA
Enamel Organ
Health hazards
Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress
Oxidative stress
Environmental Health
Dental Caries

Keywords

  • Animals
  • Apoptosis/drug effects
  • Autophagy
  • Blotting, Western
  • Cell Proliferation/drug effects
  • Cells, Cultured
  • DNA Damage/drug effects
  • Fluorescent Antibody Technique
  • Fluorides/pharmacology
  • Immunoenzyme Techniques
  • JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/genetics
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mitochondria/drug effects
  • Oxidative Stress/drug effects
  • Phosphates/pharmacology
  • Phosphorylation
  • RNA, Messenger/genetics
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism
  • Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Sirtuin 1/genetics

Cite this

Fluoride induces oxidative damage and SIRT1/autophagy through ROS-mediated JNK signaling. / Suzuki, Maiko; Bandoski, Cheryl; Bartlett, John D.

In: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Vol. 89, 12.2015, p. 369-78.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Fluoride is an effective caries prophylactic, but at high doses can also be an environmental health hazard. Acute or chronic exposure to high fluoride doses can result in dental enamel and skeletal and soft tissue fluorosis. Dental fluorosis is manifested as mottled, discolored, porous enamel that is susceptible to dental caries. Fluoride induces cell stress, including endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress, which leads to impairment of ameloblasts responsible for dental enamel formation. Recently we reported that fluoride activates SIRT1 and autophagy as an adaptive response to protect cells from stress. However, it still remains unclear how SIRT1/autophagy is regulated in dental fluorosis. In this study, we demonstrate that fluoride exposure generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the resulting oxidative damage is counteracted by SIRT1/autophagy induction through c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling in ameloblasts. In the mouse-ameloblast-derived cell line LS8, fluoride induced ROS, mitochondrial damage including cytochrome-c release, up-regulation of UCP2, attenuation of ATP synthesis, and H2AX phosphorylation (γH2AX), which is a marker of DNA damage. We evaluated the effects of the ROS inhibitor N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and the JNK inhibitor SP600125 on fluoride-induced SIRT1/autophagy activation. NAC decreased fluoride-induced ROS generation and attenuated JNK and c-Jun phosphorylation. NAC decreased SIRT1 phosphorylation and formation of the autophagy marker LC3II, which resulted in an increase in the apoptosis mediators γH2AX and cleaved/activated caspase-3. SP600125 attenuated fluoride-induced SIRT1 phosphorylation, indicating that fluoride activates SIRT1/autophagy via the ROS-mediated JNK pathway. In enamel organs from rats or mice treated with 50, 100, or 125 ppm fluoride for 6 weeks, cytochrome-c release and the DNA damage markers 8-oxoguanine, p-ATM, and γH2AX were increased compared to those in controls (0 ppm fluoride). These results suggest that fluoride-induced ROS generation causes mitochondrial damage and DNA damage, which may lead to impairment of ameloblast function. To counteract this impairment, SIRT1/autophagy is induced via JNK signaling to protect cells/ameloblasts from fluoride-induced oxidative damage that may cause dental fluorosis.",
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AU - Bartlett, John D

N1 - Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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N2 - Fluoride is an effective caries prophylactic, but at high doses can also be an environmental health hazard. Acute or chronic exposure to high fluoride doses can result in dental enamel and skeletal and soft tissue fluorosis. Dental fluorosis is manifested as mottled, discolored, porous enamel that is susceptible to dental caries. Fluoride induces cell stress, including endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress, which leads to impairment of ameloblasts responsible for dental enamel formation. Recently we reported that fluoride activates SIRT1 and autophagy as an adaptive response to protect cells from stress. However, it still remains unclear how SIRT1/autophagy is regulated in dental fluorosis. In this study, we demonstrate that fluoride exposure generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the resulting oxidative damage is counteracted by SIRT1/autophagy induction through c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling in ameloblasts. In the mouse-ameloblast-derived cell line LS8, fluoride induced ROS, mitochondrial damage including cytochrome-c release, up-regulation of UCP2, attenuation of ATP synthesis, and H2AX phosphorylation (γH2AX), which is a marker of DNA damage. We evaluated the effects of the ROS inhibitor N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and the JNK inhibitor SP600125 on fluoride-induced SIRT1/autophagy activation. NAC decreased fluoride-induced ROS generation and attenuated JNK and c-Jun phosphorylation. NAC decreased SIRT1 phosphorylation and formation of the autophagy marker LC3II, which resulted in an increase in the apoptosis mediators γH2AX and cleaved/activated caspase-3. SP600125 attenuated fluoride-induced SIRT1 phosphorylation, indicating that fluoride activates SIRT1/autophagy via the ROS-mediated JNK pathway. In enamel organs from rats or mice treated with 50, 100, or 125 ppm fluoride for 6 weeks, cytochrome-c release and the DNA damage markers 8-oxoguanine, p-ATM, and γH2AX were increased compared to those in controls (0 ppm fluoride). These results suggest that fluoride-induced ROS generation causes mitochondrial damage and DNA damage, which may lead to impairment of ameloblast function. To counteract this impairment, SIRT1/autophagy is induced via JNK signaling to protect cells/ameloblasts from fluoride-induced oxidative damage that may cause dental fluorosis.

AB - Fluoride is an effective caries prophylactic, but at high doses can also be an environmental health hazard. Acute or chronic exposure to high fluoride doses can result in dental enamel and skeletal and soft tissue fluorosis. Dental fluorosis is manifested as mottled, discolored, porous enamel that is susceptible to dental caries. Fluoride induces cell stress, including endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress, which leads to impairment of ameloblasts responsible for dental enamel formation. Recently we reported that fluoride activates SIRT1 and autophagy as an adaptive response to protect cells from stress. However, it still remains unclear how SIRT1/autophagy is regulated in dental fluorosis. In this study, we demonstrate that fluoride exposure generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the resulting oxidative damage is counteracted by SIRT1/autophagy induction through c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling in ameloblasts. In the mouse-ameloblast-derived cell line LS8, fluoride induced ROS, mitochondrial damage including cytochrome-c release, up-regulation of UCP2, attenuation of ATP synthesis, and H2AX phosphorylation (γH2AX), which is a marker of DNA damage. We evaluated the effects of the ROS inhibitor N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and the JNK inhibitor SP600125 on fluoride-induced SIRT1/autophagy activation. NAC decreased fluoride-induced ROS generation and attenuated JNK and c-Jun phosphorylation. NAC decreased SIRT1 phosphorylation and formation of the autophagy marker LC3II, which resulted in an increase in the apoptosis mediators γH2AX and cleaved/activated caspase-3. SP600125 attenuated fluoride-induced SIRT1 phosphorylation, indicating that fluoride activates SIRT1/autophagy via the ROS-mediated JNK pathway. In enamel organs from rats or mice treated with 50, 100, or 125 ppm fluoride for 6 weeks, cytochrome-c release and the DNA damage markers 8-oxoguanine, p-ATM, and γH2AX were increased compared to those in controls (0 ppm fluoride). These results suggest that fluoride-induced ROS generation causes mitochondrial damage and DNA damage, which may lead to impairment of ameloblast function. To counteract this impairment, SIRT1/autophagy is induced via JNK signaling to protect cells/ameloblasts from fluoride-induced oxidative damage that may cause dental fluorosis.

KW - Animals

KW - Apoptosis/drug effects

KW - Autophagy

KW - Blotting, Western

KW - Cell Proliferation/drug effects

KW - Cells, Cultured

KW - DNA Damage/drug effects

KW - Fluorescent Antibody Technique

KW - Fluorides/pharmacology

KW - Immunoenzyme Techniques

KW - JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/genetics

KW - Male

KW - Mice

KW - Mice, Inbred C57BL

KW - Mitochondria/drug effects

KW - Oxidative Stress/drug effects

KW - Phosphates/pharmacology

KW - Phosphorylation

KW - RNA, Messenger/genetics

KW - Rats

KW - Rats, Sprague-Dawley

KW - Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism

KW - Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction

KW - Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

KW - Sirtuin 1/genetics

U2 - 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2015.08.015

DO - 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2015.08.015

M3 - Article

VL - 89

SP - 369

EP - 378

JO - Free Radical Biology and Medicine

JF - Free Radical Biology and Medicine

SN - 0891-5849

ER -