Allogeneic stem cell transplantation with HLA-matched donors is increasingly used for older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). It remains unclear if haploidentical stem cell transplantation (haploSCT) is a suitable option for older patients with this disease. We analyzed 43 patients with AML/MDS (median age, 61 years) who underwent a haploSCT at our institution. All patients received a fludarabine-melphalan–based reduced-intensity conditioning regimen and post-transplant cyclophosphamide-based graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. Except for 1 patient who had early death, the remaining 42 patients (98%) engrafted donor cells. The cumulative incidences of grades II to IV and III to IV acute GVHD at 6 months were 35% and 5%, respectively, and chronic GVHD at 2 years was 9%. After a median follow-up of 19 months, 2-year overall survival, progression-free survival (PFS), and relapse incidence were 42%, 42%, and 24%, respectively. Best PFS (74% at 2 years) was seen in patients with intermediate-/good-risk cytogenetics, in first or second remission (hazard ratio,.4; P =.05), and with a younger donor (≤40 years; hazard ratio,.2; P =.01). In conclusion, these data suggest that haploidentical transplantation is safe and effective for older AML/MDS patients. Disease status, cytogenetics, and younger donor age are predictors for improved survival in older patients receiving a haploidentical transplant.
- Acute myeloid leukemia (AML)
- Elderly patients
- Haploidentical stem cell transplant
- Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)
- Post-transplant cyclophosphamide
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