Hematospermia is a challenging and anxiety-provoking condition that can manifest as a single episode or recur over the course of weeks to months. It is usually a benign self-limiting condition in younger sexually active males without a history of risk factors such as cancer, urogenital malformations, bleeding disorders, and their associated symptoms. However, patients with recurrent, refractory and painful hematospermia with associated symptoms, such as fever, pain, or weight loss, require evaluation through clinical assessment and noninvasive investigations to rule out underlying pathologic conditions such as ejaculatory obstruction, infectious and inflammatory causes, malignancy, vascular malformations, and systemic disorders that increase the risk of bleeding, especially when presenting in older men. If these investigations are negative, the patient should be reassured and treated accordingly. In the recent past, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has assumed a major role in the investigation of hematospermia due to its excellent soft-tissue contrast and multiplanar capabilities. In this review, we will discuss the potential causes of hematospermia and its diagnostic workup, including pathophysiology, anatomic considerations, the imaging appearance of associated pathologic conditions, and management.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging