Hemorrhagic transformation is related to the duration of occlusion and treatment with tissue plasminogen activator in a nonembolic stroke model

Susan C. Fagan, Tavarekere N. Nagaraja, Joseph D. Fenstermacher, Jianqing Zheng, Maribeth Johnson, Robert A. Knight

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34 Scopus citations


The availability of reperfusion therapy for acute ischemic stroke patients has made the causes and significance of hemorrhagic transformation an area of intense interest and controversy. Ninety-two male Wistar rats underwent transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) of between 1 and 6 h. Forty animals received 10 mg kg-1 of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA), infused over 20 min, starting 5 min before reperfusion. At 18-24 h, the animals were sacrificed. The presence of hemorrhagic transformation (HT) on stained sections was recorded and total ischemic lesion area was quantified using image analysis software. Seventeen animals (11 with HT) were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis for detection of endothelial barrier antigen (EBA), quantified in three sections, in eight different fields per section. Chi-squared analysis and logistic regression were used to assess the contribution of rtPA and duration of occlusion to HT development. Nested, repeated measures analyses of variance were performed to assess the changes in EBA caused by ischemia and associated with HT. Fifty-nine animals developed HT that was significantly associated with occlusion duration (p < 0.0001) and ischemic lesion size (p = 0.0007). The presence of rtPA accelerated HT development. Statistically significant side-to-side differences in the presence of EBA were found in the striatum (core of the infarct) of animals with HT (p < 0.001) and without HT (p < 0.001), but only in animals with durations of occlusion of 2 h or more. Duration of occlusion is an important predictor of HT in transient MCAO in the rat and is closely associated with EBA expression.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)377-382
Number of pages6
JournalNeurological Research
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jun 1 2003



  • Endothelial barrier antigen
  • Intracerebral hemorrhage
  • Middle cerebral artery
  • Rat
  • Reperfusion
  • rtPA

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology

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