Purpose: The present in vitro study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) suberoyl anilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), sodium butyrate (NaB) and MS-275 applied as single agents or in combination with TRAIL in Ewing's sarcoma. Methods: Cytotoxic activities were assessed by cytofluorometric analysis of propidium iodide uptake, DNA fragmentation and mitochondrial depolarisation as well as by measuring caspase-9 and -3 activities. Cell-surface expression of TRAIL receptors was determined by cytofluorometry, and histone H4 acetylation was assessed by western blot. Results: All three HDIs potently induced cell death in the two cell lines explored, SK-ES-1 and WE-68. However, they seemed to differ in their modes of action. SAHA and NaB induced mitochondrial depolarisation as well as caspase-9 and -3 activities, and their cytotoxic effects could be significantly reduced by the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. MS-275 was a much weaker inducer of caspase-9 and -3 activities as well as mitochondrial injury; consistently, z-VAD-fmk had little effect on MS-275-mediated activities. Combined treatment of HDIs and TRAIL led to an additive effect in SK-ES-1 cells and a supra-additive effect in WE-68 cells. Yet, HDIs did not increase cell-surface expression of TRAIL receptor 2, but rather decreased it. Selective inhibition of caspase-8 in WE-68 cells and HDI treatment of CADO-ES-1 cells, a Ewing's sarcoma cell line deficient in caspase-8 expression, revealed that caspase-8 was not required for HDI-mediated apoptosis. Conclusions: These results suggest that HDIs may be considered as a novel treatment strategy for Ewing's sarcoma either applied as monotherapy or in combination with TRAIL.
- Ewing's sarcoma
- Histone deacetylase inhibitors
- Sodium butyrate
- Suberoyl anilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA)
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research