How can nanoleakage occur in self-etching adhesive systems that demineralize and infiltrate simultaneously?

Franklin Chi Meng Tay, Nigel M. King, Kar Mun Chan, David H. Pashley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

236 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: Single-step adhesives which etch and prime simultaneously and are not rinsed should not exhibit areas of incomplete infiltration within hybrid layers produced in sound dentin. This study examined the extent of silver uptake using ammoniacal silver nitrate in three two-step, self-etching primers (Imperva Fluoro Bond, Shofu; UniFil Bond, GC, ABF system, Kuraray) and one single-step, self-etching adhesive (AQ Bond, Sun Medical) bonded to dentin and four poly(HEMA) resins used as controls. Materials and Methods: Flat dentin surfaces were bonded with these adhesives and sectioned into 0.8-mm-thick slabs that were then coated with nail varnish except for the bonded interfaces and immersed in AgNO3 for 24 h. Four types of poly(HEMA) resins were made: 100% HEMA; 90% HEMA-10% water; 75% HEMA-10% water, all polymerized with TBBO at 50°C for 6 h; 100% HEMA polymerized at 25°C for 30 min. After developing, undemineralized, unstained, epoxy resin-embedded sections were prepared for TEM. Results: Nanoleakage patterns were observed in all bonded specimens. Fine segregated silver particles and reticular silver-staining patterns were found within the thin hybrid layers created by the three self-etching primers. For the single-step, self-etching adhesive, heavy silver deposits were identified within the hybridized complex formed by this adhesive within the smear layer, the underlying intact dentin, and in the adhesive layer. Increasing amounts of silver uptake were observed in poly(HEMA) specimens containing more water or that were polymerized at 25°C for a short time instead of 50°C for 6 h. Conclusions: Silver uptake in hybrid layers formed by self-etching adhesives in sound dentin is not necessarily caused by disparities between the depths of demineralization and resin infiltration. They represent areas of increased permeability within a polymerized resin matrix in which water is incompletely removed resulting in regions of incomplete polymerization and/or hydrogel formation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)255-269
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Adhesive Dentistry
Volume4
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 1 2002

Fingerprint

Adhesives
Dentin
Silver
Water
Smear Layer
Epoxy Resins
Silver Nitrate
Silver Staining
Paint
Hydrogel
Solar System
Nails
Polymerization
Permeability
hydroxyethyl methacrylate
poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-polyamine graft copolymer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthodontics
  • Oral Surgery
  • Periodontics

Cite this

How can nanoleakage occur in self-etching adhesive systems that demineralize and infiltrate simultaneously? / Tay, Franklin Chi Meng; King, Nigel M.; Chan, Kar Mun; Pashley, David H.

In: Journal of Adhesive Dentistry, Vol. 4, No. 4, 01.12.2002, p. 255-269.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "How can nanoleakage occur in self-etching adhesive systems that demineralize and infiltrate simultaneously?",
abstract = "Purpose: Single-step adhesives which etch and prime simultaneously and are not rinsed should not exhibit areas of incomplete infiltration within hybrid layers produced in sound dentin. This study examined the extent of silver uptake using ammoniacal silver nitrate in three two-step, self-etching primers (Imperva Fluoro Bond, Shofu; UniFil Bond, GC, ABF system, Kuraray) and one single-step, self-etching adhesive (AQ Bond, Sun Medical) bonded to dentin and four poly(HEMA) resins used as controls. Materials and Methods: Flat dentin surfaces were bonded with these adhesives and sectioned into 0.8-mm-thick slabs that were then coated with nail varnish except for the bonded interfaces and immersed in AgNO3 for 24 h. Four types of poly(HEMA) resins were made: 100{\%} HEMA; 90{\%} HEMA-10{\%} water; 75{\%} HEMA-10{\%} water, all polymerized with TBBO at 50°C for 6 h; 100{\%} HEMA polymerized at 25°C for 30 min. After developing, undemineralized, unstained, epoxy resin-embedded sections were prepared for TEM. Results: Nanoleakage patterns were observed in all bonded specimens. Fine segregated silver particles and reticular silver-staining patterns were found within the thin hybrid layers created by the three self-etching primers. For the single-step, self-etching adhesive, heavy silver deposits were identified within the hybridized complex formed by this adhesive within the smear layer, the underlying intact dentin, and in the adhesive layer. Increasing amounts of silver uptake were observed in poly(HEMA) specimens containing more water or that were polymerized at 25°C for a short time instead of 50°C for 6 h. Conclusions: Silver uptake in hybrid layers formed by self-etching adhesives in sound dentin is not necessarily caused by disparities between the depths of demineralization and resin infiltration. They represent areas of increased permeability within a polymerized resin matrix in which water is incompletely removed resulting in regions of incomplete polymerization and/or hydrogel formation.",
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N2 - Purpose: Single-step adhesives which etch and prime simultaneously and are not rinsed should not exhibit areas of incomplete infiltration within hybrid layers produced in sound dentin. This study examined the extent of silver uptake using ammoniacal silver nitrate in three two-step, self-etching primers (Imperva Fluoro Bond, Shofu; UniFil Bond, GC, ABF system, Kuraray) and one single-step, self-etching adhesive (AQ Bond, Sun Medical) bonded to dentin and four poly(HEMA) resins used as controls. Materials and Methods: Flat dentin surfaces were bonded with these adhesives and sectioned into 0.8-mm-thick slabs that were then coated with nail varnish except for the bonded interfaces and immersed in AgNO3 for 24 h. Four types of poly(HEMA) resins were made: 100% HEMA; 90% HEMA-10% water; 75% HEMA-10% water, all polymerized with TBBO at 50°C for 6 h; 100% HEMA polymerized at 25°C for 30 min. After developing, undemineralized, unstained, epoxy resin-embedded sections were prepared for TEM. Results: Nanoleakage patterns were observed in all bonded specimens. Fine segregated silver particles and reticular silver-staining patterns were found within the thin hybrid layers created by the three self-etching primers. For the single-step, self-etching adhesive, heavy silver deposits were identified within the hybridized complex formed by this adhesive within the smear layer, the underlying intact dentin, and in the adhesive layer. Increasing amounts of silver uptake were observed in poly(HEMA) specimens containing more water or that were polymerized at 25°C for a short time instead of 50°C for 6 h. Conclusions: Silver uptake in hybrid layers formed by self-etching adhesives in sound dentin is not necessarily caused by disparities between the depths of demineralization and resin infiltration. They represent areas of increased permeability within a polymerized resin matrix in which water is incompletely removed resulting in regions of incomplete polymerization and/or hydrogel formation.

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