Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) seroprevalence and characterization of a distinct HIV-2 genetic subtype from the natural range of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected sooty mangabeys

Zhiwei Chen, Amara Luckay, Donald L. Sodora, Paul Telfer, Patricia Reed, Agegnehu Gettie, James M. Kanu, Ramses F Sadek, Jo Ann Yee, David D. Ho, Linqi Zhang, Preston A. Marx

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Abstract

The extent of zoonotic infections in rural Sierra Leone, where both feral and pet sooty mangabeys harbor divergent members of the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2)-sooty mangabey simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVsm) family, was tested in blood samples collected from 9,309 human subjects in 1993. Using HIV-1- and HIV-2-specific enzyme immunoassays and confirmatory Western blot analysis to test for antibodies to SIVsm-related leotiviruses, we found only nine subjects (0.096%) who tested positive for HIV: seven tested positive for HIV-1 and two tested positive for HIV-2. Compared with other rural West African communities, Sierra Leone displayed the lowest seroprevalence (0.021%) of HIV-2 infection yet reported, much lower than the previously reported seroprevalence in SIVsm-infected fetal and household pet sooty mangabeys. Heteroduplex analysis demonstrated that two of the newly found HIV-1 strains belonged to subtype A, the most common HIV-1 subtype in Africa, but this is the first report of subtype A in Sierra Leone. The two HIV-2-infected individuals harbored two distinct HIV-2 strains, designated 93SL1 and 93SL2. Phytogenetic analysis indicated that HIV-2 93SL1 is a member of HIV-2 subtype A, the first strain of this HIV-2 subtype found in Sierra Leone. In contrast, HIV-2 93SL2 belongs to none of the five previously characterized HIV-2 subtypes (A to E) but is a new subtype, herein designated F, having the most divergent transmembrane sequences yet reported for HIV-2. The fact that both of the two most divergent HIV-2 subtypes known, E and F, are rare and found as single occurrences in persons from Sierra Leone may be related to the fact that this small region of West Africa also contains free-living and household pet sooty mangabeys with highly divergent variants of SIVsm. This finding provides support for the hypotheses that new HIV-2 subtypes result from independent cross-species transmission of SIVsm to the human population and that these single-occurrence transmission events had not spread widely into the population by 1993.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3953-3960
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Virology
Volume71
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 1997

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Cercocebus atys
Human immunodeficiency virus 2
Cercocebus
Simian immunodeficiency virus
Simian Immunodeficiency Virus
HIV-2
Seroepidemiologic Studies
seroprevalence
Sierra Leone
Human immunodeficiency virus 1
HIV-1
Pets
pets
households
Heteroduplex Analysis
Western Africa

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Immunology
  • Insect Science
  • Virology

Cite this

Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) seroprevalence and characterization of a distinct HIV-2 genetic subtype from the natural range of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected sooty mangabeys. / Chen, Zhiwei; Luckay, Amara; Sodora, Donald L.; Telfer, Paul; Reed, Patricia; Gettie, Agegnehu; Kanu, James M.; Sadek, Ramses F; Yee, Jo Ann; Ho, David D.; Zhang, Linqi; Marx, Preston A.

In: Journal of Virology, Vol. 71, No. 5, 01.05.1997, p. 3953-3960.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Chen, Z, Luckay, A, Sodora, DL, Telfer, P, Reed, P, Gettie, A, Kanu, JM, Sadek, RF, Yee, JA, Ho, DD, Zhang, L & Marx, PA 1997, 'Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) seroprevalence and characterization of a distinct HIV-2 genetic subtype from the natural range of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected sooty mangabeys', Journal of Virology, vol. 71, no. 5, pp. 3953-3960.
Chen, Zhiwei ; Luckay, Amara ; Sodora, Donald L. ; Telfer, Paul ; Reed, Patricia ; Gettie, Agegnehu ; Kanu, James M. ; Sadek, Ramses F ; Yee, Jo Ann ; Ho, David D. ; Zhang, Linqi ; Marx, Preston A. / Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) seroprevalence and characterization of a distinct HIV-2 genetic subtype from the natural range of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected sooty mangabeys. In: Journal of Virology. 1997 ; Vol. 71, No. 5. pp. 3953-3960.
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abstract = "The extent of zoonotic infections in rural Sierra Leone, where both feral and pet sooty mangabeys harbor divergent members of the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2)-sooty mangabey simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVsm) family, was tested in blood samples collected from 9,309 human subjects in 1993. Using HIV-1- and HIV-2-specific enzyme immunoassays and confirmatory Western blot analysis to test for antibodies to SIVsm-related leotiviruses, we found only nine subjects (0.096{\%}) who tested positive for HIV: seven tested positive for HIV-1 and two tested positive for HIV-2. Compared with other rural West African communities, Sierra Leone displayed the lowest seroprevalence (0.021{\%}) of HIV-2 infection yet reported, much lower than the previously reported seroprevalence in SIVsm-infected fetal and household pet sooty mangabeys. Heteroduplex analysis demonstrated that two of the newly found HIV-1 strains belonged to subtype A, the most common HIV-1 subtype in Africa, but this is the first report of subtype A in Sierra Leone. The two HIV-2-infected individuals harbored two distinct HIV-2 strains, designated 93SL1 and 93SL2. Phytogenetic analysis indicated that HIV-2 93SL1 is a member of HIV-2 subtype A, the first strain of this HIV-2 subtype found in Sierra Leone. In contrast, HIV-2 93SL2 belongs to none of the five previously characterized HIV-2 subtypes (A to E) but is a new subtype, herein designated F, having the most divergent transmembrane sequences yet reported for HIV-2. The fact that both of the two most divergent HIV-2 subtypes known, E and F, are rare and found as single occurrences in persons from Sierra Leone may be related to the fact that this small region of West Africa also contains free-living and household pet sooty mangabeys with highly divergent variants of SIVsm. This finding provides support for the hypotheses that new HIV-2 subtypes result from independent cross-species transmission of SIVsm to the human population and that these single-occurrence transmission events had not spread widely into the population by 1993.",
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