Human Milk Supplementation: Delivery of Energy, Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Copper, and Zinc

Jatinder J Bhatia, David K. Rassin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Scopus citations


Human milk when fed to preterm infants is frequently supplemented with human milk fortifiers that provide an additional source of protein, energy, and minerals. Human milk that was provided by the mother of a preterm infant, and that was supplemented with commercially available human milk fortifiers, was assessed under simulated syringepump and bolus feeding circumstances for the delivery of energy, calcium, phosphorus, copper, magnesium, and zinc to an infant. In general, the nutrients were not completely delivered with syringe-pump feedings, with the greatest losses occurring in the concentrations of calcium and phosphorus. The losses were more pronounced with the use of a powdered fortifier than with the use of a liquid fortifier. Little or no change in the concentrations of the various nutrients were observed with simulated bolus feeding. We suggest that human milk fortified with supplements be fed with care to assure complete delivery of the nutrients and that infants receiving such feedings be monitored to assure adequate nutritional status.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)445-447
Number of pages3
JournalAmerican Journal of Diseases of Children
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 1988
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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