Purpose: To evaluate response and outcome with a front-line intensive multiagent chemotherapy regimen in adults with Burkitt's-type acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). Patients and Methods: From September 1992 to June 1997, 26 consecutive adults with newly diagnosed untreated B-ALL received hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone (Hyper-CVAD). Their median age was 58 years (range, 17 to 79 years), and 46% were ± 60 years. Patients received Hyper-CVAD alternated with courses of high-dose methotrexate and cytarabine. Granulocyte colony- stimulating factor and prophylactic antibiotics were administered for all eight planned courses. CNS prophylaxis alternated intrathecal methotrexate and cytarabine on days 2 and 7 of each course. Results: Complete remission (CR) was obtained in 21 patients (81%). There were five induction deaths (19%). The median time to CR was 22 days (range, 15 to 89 days); 70% achieved CR within 4 weeks. The 3-year survival rate was 49% (± 11%); the 3-year continuous CR rate was 61% (± 11%). Twelve CR patients (57%) were in continuous CR at a median follow-up of 3+ years (range, 13+ months to 6.5+ years). Characteristics predicting for worse survival were age ≥ 60 years, poor performance status, anemia, thrombocytopenia, peripheral blasts, and increased lactate dehydrogenase level. The 3-year survival rate was 77% for 14 patients younger than 60 years and 17% for 12 patients ≥ 60 years (P < .01). Regression analysis identified older age, anemia, and presence of peripheral blasts as independent factors associated with shorter survival. Patients could be stratified according to (1) no or one adverse feature, (2) two adverse features, and (3) all adverse features. The 3-year survival rates were 89%, 47%, and 0%, respectively (P < .01). Conclusion: Hyper-CVAD is effective in adult B-ALL. Identification of patients with high risk for relapse and improved methods to detect residual disease may result in risk- oriented approaches.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research