The pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is complex and apparently multifactorial. Hypoxia or decrease in oxygen supply in kidney tissues has been implicated in CKD. Hypoxia inducible factors (HIF) are a small family of transcription factors that are mainly responsive to hypoxia and mediate hypoxic response. HIF plays a critical role in renal fibrosis during CKD through the modulation of gene transcription, crosstalk with multiple signaling pathways, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and epigenetic regulation. Moreover, HIF also contributes to the development of various pathological conditions associated with CKD, such as anemia, inflammation, aberrant angiogenesis, and vascular calcification. Treatments targeting HIF and related signaling pathways for CKD therapy are being developed with promising clinical benefits, especially for anemia. This review presents an updated analysis of hypoxia response, HIF, and their associated signaling network involved in the pathogenesis of CKD.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry