The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronic acid (HA) and its degrading enzyme, hyaluronidase, are intricately associated with tumor metastasis and angiogenesis. HA promotes tumor cell adhesion and migration, whereas its small fragments stimulate angiogenesis. Such small HA fragments are generated from the degradation of HA by hyaluronidase. We have previously shown (V. B. Lokeshwar et al., Cancer Res., 57: 773-777, 1997) that the HA levels are elevated in the urine and tumor tissues of bladder cancer patients regardless of the tumor grade (G). The hyaluronidase levels were found to be elevated in the urine and tumor tissues of G2 and G3 bladder cancer patients. Furthermore, angiogenic HA fragments were isolated from the urine of G2/G3 bladder cancer patients, which stimulated endothelial cell proliferation, a key event in angiogenesis. In this study, we characterized the bladder tumor- derived hyaluronidase. Analysis of hyaluronidase activity in the culture- conditioned media (CM) of 11 bladder cancer cell lines, using an ELISA-like assay and a substrate (HA)-gel technique, showed that the invasive bladder cancer cell lines secrete elevated levels of a M(r) ~60,000 hyaluronidase. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, cloning, and sequence analyses revealed the expression of an HYAL1 transcript in bladder cancer lines. HYAL1 encodes for a hyaluronidase that is present in serum. Immunoblot analysis using an anti-HYAL1 peptide IgG confirmed the presence of a M(r) ~60,000 HYAL1-related protein in the CM of bladder cancer cell lines, in the urine specimens from G2 and G3 bladder cancer patients, and in the partially purified preparations of bladder tumor-derived hyaluronidase. No HYAL1- related protein was detected in urine specimens from normal individuals, G1 bladder cancer patients, and patients with a history of bladder cancer but no disease at the time of testing. The bladder tumor-derived hyaluronidase present in CM and partially purified preparations was found to have maximum activity at a pH range of 4.1-4.3. The identification of bladder tumor- derived hyaluronidase should help in elucidating its role in bladder tumor progression.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||7|
|State||Published - Sep 1 1999|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research