In image-guided surgery, discrete fiducials are used to determine a spatial registration between the location of surgical tools in the operating theater and the location of targeted subsurface lesions and critical anatomic features depicted in preoperative tomographic image data. However, the lack of readily localized anatomic landmarks has greatly hindered the use of image-guided surgery in minimally invasive abdominal procedures. To address these needs, we have previously described a laser-based system for localization of internal surface anatomy using conventional laparoscopes. During a procedure, this system generates a digitized, three-dimensional representation of visible anatomic surfaces in the abdominal cavity. This paper presents the results of an experiment utilizing an ex-vivo bovine liver to assess subsurface targeting accuracy achieved using our system. During the experiment, several radiopaque targets were inserted into the liver parenchyma. The location of each target was recorded using an optically-tracked insertion probe. The liver surface was digitized using our system, and registered with the liver surface extracted from post-procedure CT images. This surface-based registration was then used to transform the position of the inserted targets into the CT image volume. The target registration error (TRE) achieved using our surface-based registration (given a suitable registration algorithm initialization) was 2.4 mm ± 1.0 mm. A comparable TRE (2.6 mm ± 1.7 mm) was obtained using a registration based on traditional fiducial markers placed on the surface of the same liver. These results indicate the potential of fiducial-free, surface-to-surface registration for image-guided lesion targeting in minimally invasive abdominal surgery.