Impact of ketone salt containing supplement on cardiorespiratory and oxidative stress response in firefighters exercising in personal protective equipment

Matthew John McAllister, Angelia Maleah Holland, Harish Chander, Hunter Scott Waldman, Johneric William Smith, Steven Allen Basham

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Firefighters have the highest risk of on duty death due to cardiovascular disease which may be caused by excessive oxidative stress (OS). Animal studies have shown that ketone bodies may reduce OS; however, human trials are needed. Objectives: To examine the effects of a supplement containing ketone salts (KS) on blood OS and cardiorespiratory responses in firefighters exercising in personal protective equipment. Methods: Nine firefighters supplemented with KS or a calorie-and flavor-matched placebo (PLA) twice per day for 7 days in a randomized, crossover design. On the eighth day, firefighters arrived for testing after ≥ 8 hour fast and ingested the assigned supplement 35 minutes before performing the exercise task (35 minutes at 60% VO2peak intensity) wearing personal protective equipment (i.e., turnout gear, self-contained breathing apparatus, air tank, gloves). Blood was sampled pre-and post-exercise (post periods: immediately, 30 minutes and 24 hours) and analyzed for markers of OS including red blood cell (RBC) levels of glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as plasma levels of SOD, catalase, total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde, and glucose. Results: There was no treatment effect or treatment × time interaction (P > 0.05) for any of the markers of OS. However, the exercise protocol resulted in significant increases in RBC levels of SOD from pre-to immediately post-exercise and decreased RBC levels of GSH from pre-to 30 minutes post-exercise. Ingestion of KS resulted in a significant increase in ketone levels and reduction in heart rate during the exercise test. Conclusions: These findings suggest that 7 days of supplementation with a KS supplement does not impact markers of OS but reduces heart rate.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere82404
JournalAsian Journal of Sports Medicine
Volume10
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2019

Fingerprint

Firefighters
Ketones
Oxidative Stress
Salts
Exercise
Superoxide Dismutase
Erythrocytes
Heart Rate
Ketone Bodies
Glutathione Disulfide
Malondialdehyde
Exercise Test
Catalase
Cross-Over Studies
Glutathione
Personal Protective Equipment
Respiration
Cardiovascular Diseases
Eating
Antioxidants

Keywords

  • Beta-Hydroxybutyrate
  • Central Nervous System
  • Ergogenic Aid
  • Heart Rate
  • Ketosis
  • Substrate Oxidation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

Cite this

Impact of ketone salt containing supplement on cardiorespiratory and oxidative stress response in firefighters exercising in personal protective equipment. / McAllister, Matthew John; Holland, Angelia Maleah; Chander, Harish; Waldman, Hunter Scott; Smith, Johneric William; Basham, Steven Allen.

In: Asian Journal of Sports Medicine, Vol. 10, No. 1, e82404, 01.03.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

McAllister, Matthew John ; Holland, Angelia Maleah ; Chander, Harish ; Waldman, Hunter Scott ; Smith, Johneric William ; Basham, Steven Allen. / Impact of ketone salt containing supplement on cardiorespiratory and oxidative stress response in firefighters exercising in personal protective equipment. In: Asian Journal of Sports Medicine. 2019 ; Vol. 10, No. 1.
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abstract = "Background: Firefighters have the highest risk of on duty death due to cardiovascular disease which may be caused by excessive oxidative stress (OS). Animal studies have shown that ketone bodies may reduce OS; however, human trials are needed. Objectives: To examine the effects of a supplement containing ketone salts (KS) on blood OS and cardiorespiratory responses in firefighters exercising in personal protective equipment. Methods: Nine firefighters supplemented with KS or a calorie-and flavor-matched placebo (PLA) twice per day for 7 days in a randomized, crossover design. On the eighth day, firefighters arrived for testing after ≥ 8 hour fast and ingested the assigned supplement 35 minutes before performing the exercise task (35 minutes at 60{\%} VO2peak intensity) wearing personal protective equipment (i.e., turnout gear, self-contained breathing apparatus, air tank, gloves). Blood was sampled pre-and post-exercise (post periods: immediately, 30 minutes and 24 hours) and analyzed for markers of OS including red blood cell (RBC) levels of glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as plasma levels of SOD, catalase, total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde, and glucose. Results: There was no treatment effect or treatment × time interaction (P > 0.05) for any of the markers of OS. However, the exercise protocol resulted in significant increases in RBC levels of SOD from pre-to immediately post-exercise and decreased RBC levels of GSH from pre-to 30 minutes post-exercise. Ingestion of KS resulted in a significant increase in ketone levels and reduction in heart rate during the exercise test. Conclusions: These findings suggest that 7 days of supplementation with a KS supplement does not impact markers of OS but reduces heart rate.",
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KW - Beta-Hydroxybutyrate

KW - Central Nervous System

KW - Ergogenic Aid

KW - Heart Rate

KW - Ketosis

KW - Substrate Oxidation

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