FLT3-ITD mutations in newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are associated with worse overall survival (OS). FLT3-ITD diversity can further influence clinical outcomes. Addition of FLT3 inhibitors to standard chemotherapy has improved OS. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prognostic impact of FLT3 diversity and identify predictors of efficacy of FLT3 inhibitors. We reviewed prospectively collected data from 395 patients with newly diagnosed FLT3-ITD mutant AML. 156 (39%) patients received FLT3 inhibitors combined with either high or low intensity chemotherapy. There was no statistically significant difference in clinical outcomes among patients treated with FLT3 inhibitors based on FLT3 numerical variation (p = 0.85), mutation length (p = 0.67). Overall, the addition of FLT3 inhibitor to intensive chemotherapy was associated with an improved OS (HR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.24–0.5, p = 0.0005), but not in combination with lower intensity chemotherapy (HR = 0.98, 95%CI: 0.7–1.36, p = 0.85). A differential effect of FLT3 inhibitor on OS was more pronounced in younger patients with FLT3 allelic ratio ≥0.5 (HR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.25–0.66, p < 0.001), single ITD mutation (HR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.34–0.88, p = 0.01), diploid cytogenetics (HR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.35–0.76, p = 0.001), NPM1 co-mutation (HR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.19–0.67, p = 0.001). Our analysis identifies predictors of survival among diverse FLT3 related variables in patients treated with FLT3 inhibitor.
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