Incidence and outcomes of Clostridium difficile-associated disease in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients

Achuta Kumar Guddati, Gagan Kumar, Shahryar Ahmed, Muhammad Ali, Nilay Kumar, Parameswaran Hari, Nanda Venu

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21 Scopus citations

Abstract

Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are at a high risk of Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) given frequent hospitalizations, prolonged antibiotic usage and altered integrity of intestinal mucosa. The prevalence and trends of CDAD in HSCT patients have not been extensively studied. In this study, the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes were used to identify CDAD in HSCT patients using a nationwide inpatient sample in the United States from 2000 to 2009. The prevalence of CDAD and in-hospital mortality in HSCT were investigated and compared to those without any transplants. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify if BMT and graft versus host disease (GVHD) were independently associated with mortality in CDAD patients. Of the 344,507 HSCT discharges, 4.7% had CDAD. This was about 5 times higher when compared to non-transplant discharges. During engraftment admission, rates of CDAD were higher in allogenic group (8.4 vs. 5.7%, p < 0.001). In subsequent admissions, those with GVHD had higher rates of CDAD (5.7 vs. 3.2%, p < 0.001). On adjusted analysis in patients with CDAD, during engraftment admission, allogenic group had significantly higher mortality when compared with non-transplants (OR 3.7). Notably, there was no significant difference in mortality between patients with and without CDAD during the engraftment period for the allogeneic group. In subsequent admissions, there was higher mortality in those with GVHD (OR 4.8). Though the prevalence of CDAD in non-transplant population doubled (from 0.44% in 2000 to 0.99% in 2008), it has remained stable in HSCT patients (from 4.8% in 2000 to 5.6% in 2008). HSCT and GVHD are independently associated with CDAD though its presence does not affect mortality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)758-765
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Hematology
Volume99
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2014
Externally publishedYes

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Keywords

  • Clostridium difficile-associated disease
  • Graft versus host disease
  • Hematopoietic stem cell transplant
  • Mortality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology

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