Incidence and predictors of hypertension in adults with HIV-initiating antiretroviral therapy in south-western Uganda

Samson Okello, Michael Kanyesigye, Winnie R. Muyindike, Brian Herb Annex, Peter W. Hunt, Sebastien Haneuse, Mark Jacob Siedner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

45 Scopus citations


Objective: The successful scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa has led to increasing life expectancy, and thus increased risk of hypertension. We aimed to describe the incidence and predictors of hypertension in HIV patients receiving ART at a publicly funded clinic in rural Uganda. Methods: We abstracted data from medical records of adult patients who initiated ART at an HIV clinic in south-western Uganda during 2010-2012. We defined hypertension as at least two consecutive clinical visits, with a SBP at least 140 mmHg and/or SBP of at least 90 mmHg, or prescription for an antihypertensive medication. We calculated the incidence of hypertension and fit multivariable Cox proportional-hazards models to identify predictors of hypertension. Results: A total of 3389 patients initiated ART without a prior diagnosis of hypertension during the observation period. Over 3990 person-years of follow-up, 445 patients developed hypertension, for a crude incidence of 111.5/1000 (95% confidence interval 101.9-121.7) person-years. Rates were highest among men aged at least 40 years (158.8per/1000 person-years) and lowest in women aged 30-39 years (80/1000 person-years). Lower CD4 + cell count at ART initiation, as well as traditional risk factors including male sex, increasing age, and obesity, were independently associated with hypertension. Conclusion: We observed a high incidence of hypertension in HIV-infected persons on ART in rural Uganda, and increased risk with lower nadir CD4 + cell counts. Our findings call for increased attention to screening of and treatment for hypertension, along with continued prioritization of early ART initiation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2039-2045
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of hypertension
Issue number10
StatePublished - 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • aging
  • antiretroviral therapy
  • hypertension
  • noncommunicable disease
  • sub-Saharan Africa

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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