Incidence of and risk factors for involvement of the central nervous system in acute myeloid leukemia

Uri Rozovski, Maro Ohanian, Farhad Ravandi, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, Stefan Faderl, Sherry Pierce, Jorge Cortes, Zeev Estrov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

18 Scopus citations

Abstract

It is thought that the low incidence of central nervous system (CNS) involvement in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) does not justify routine CNS prophylaxis, as high-dose cytarabine eliminates CNS disease. To investigate whether chemotherapy that does not include high-dose cytarabine increases the risk of CNS involvement, the medical records of 1412 newly diagnosed patients with AML were reviewed. In 1370 patients, lumbar puncture (LP) was performed only if clinically indicated, and CNS disease was detected in 45 (3.3%) patients. Another 42 patients underwent routine LP as part of an investigational protocol, and in eight (19%) CNS disease was detected (p < 0.0001). Risk factors included high lactate dehydrogenase, African-American ethnicity and young age. Patients receiving high-dose cytarabine and those who did not had similar rates of CNS involvement. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival were shorter in patients with CNS involvement. It remains to be determined whether routine CNS prophylaxis would improve DFS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1392-1397
Number of pages6
JournalLeukemia and Lymphoma
Volume56
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2015
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Acute myeloid leukemia
  • Central nervous system
  • Cytarabine
  • Lumbar puncture
  • Risk factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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  • Cite this

    Rozovski, U., Ohanian, M., Ravandi, F., Garcia-Manero, G., Faderl, S., Pierce, S., Cortes, J., & Estrov, Z. (2015). Incidence of and risk factors for involvement of the central nervous system in acute myeloid leukemia. Leukemia and Lymphoma, 56(5), 1392-1397. https://doi.org/10.3109/10428194.2014.953148