Induction of hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) lowers blood pressure and reduces organ damage in hypertensive animal models; however, a potential protective role for HO-1 induction against diabetic-induced glomerular injury remains unclear. We hypothesize that HO-1 induction will protect against diabetes-induced glomerular injury by maintaining glomerular integrity and inhibiting renal apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) as a model where the coexistence of hypertension and diabetes aggravates the progression of diabetic renal injury. Control and diabetic SHR were randomized to receive vehicle or the HO-1 inducer cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP). Glomerular albumin permeability was significantly greater in diabetic SHR compared with control, consistent with an increase in apoptosis and decreased glomerular nephrin and α3 β1-integrin protein expression in diabetic SHR. CoPP significantly reduced albumin permeability and apoptosis and restored nephrin and α3 β -integrin protein expression levels in diabetic SHR. Glomerular injury in diabetic SHR was also associated with increases in NF-κB-induced inflammation and oxidative stress relative to vehicle-treated SHR, and CoPP significantly blunted diabetes-induced increases in glomerular inflammation and oxidative stress in diabetic SHR. These effects were specific to exogenous stimulation of HO-1, since incubation with the HO inhibitor stannous mesoporphyrin alone did not alter glomerular inflammatory markers or oxidative stress yet was able to prevent CoPP-mediated decreases in these parameters. These data suggest that induction of HO-1 reduces diabetic induced-glomerular injury and apoptosis and these effects are associated with decreased NF-κB-induced inflammation and oxidative stress.
- Albumin permeability
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