Influence of glucosamine on glomerular mesangial cell turnover: Implications for hyperglycemia and hexosamine pathway flux

Leighton R James, Catherine Le, James W. Scholey

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Abstract

Cells exposed to high glucose may undergo hypertrophy, proliferation, and apoptosis, but the role of hexosamine flux in mediating these effects has not been fully elucidated. Accordingly, we studied the effects of glucose and glucosamine on rat glomerular mesangial cells (MC) turnover. Compared with physiological glucose (5.6 mM), treatment with high glucose (25 mM) for 24 h stimulated MC proliferation, an effect that was mimicked by exposure to low concentrations of glucosamine (0.05 mM). The percentage of cells in G 0/G1 phase of the cell cycle was reduced with a concomitant increase of the number of cells in G2/M phase. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen, phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin [phospho-mTOR (Ser2448)], and total regulatory-associated protein of mTOR were increased by high glucose and glucosamine treatment. Inhibition of glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT), the rate-limiting enzyme for hexosamine flux, with 6-diazo-5-oxonorleucine (10 μM) and of mTOR with rapamycin both attenuated glucose-mediated MC proliferation. Higher glucosamine concentrations (0.25-10 mM) caused MC apoptosis after 48 h, and, in addition, GFAT overexpression also increased MC apoptosis (TdT-dUTP nick end-labeling-positive cells: 3.8 ± 0.3 vs. 1.1 ± 0.2% for empty vector; P < 0.05). Hence, hexosamine flux is an important determinant of MC proliferation and apoptosis. The proliferative response to high glucose and hexosamine flux is rapamycin-sensitive, suggesting that this effect is associated with signaling through rapamycin-sensitive mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1).

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism
Volume298
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2010

Fingerprint

Hexosamines
Mesangial Cells
Glucosamine
Hyperglycemia
Glucose
Sirolimus
Glutamine-Fructose-6-Phosphate Transaminase (Isomerizing)
Apoptosis
Cell Proliferation
TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
Gastrin-Secreting Cells
G2 Phase
Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
G1 Phase
Cell Division
Hypertrophy
Cell Cycle
Cell Count
Enzymes

Keywords

  • Cell turnover
  • Hexosamine flux
  • High glucose

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

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title = "Influence of glucosamine on glomerular mesangial cell turnover: Implications for hyperglycemia and hexosamine pathway flux",
abstract = "Cells exposed to high glucose may undergo hypertrophy, proliferation, and apoptosis, but the role of hexosamine flux in mediating these effects has not been fully elucidated. Accordingly, we studied the effects of glucose and glucosamine on rat glomerular mesangial cells (MC) turnover. Compared with physiological glucose (5.6 mM), treatment with high glucose (25 mM) for 24 h stimulated MC proliferation, an effect that was mimicked by exposure to low concentrations of glucosamine (0.05 mM). The percentage of cells in G 0/G1 phase of the cell cycle was reduced with a concomitant increase of the number of cells in G2/M phase. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen, phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin [phospho-mTOR (Ser2448)], and total regulatory-associated protein of mTOR were increased by high glucose and glucosamine treatment. Inhibition of glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT), the rate-limiting enzyme for hexosamine flux, with 6-diazo-5-oxonorleucine (10 μM) and of mTOR with rapamycin both attenuated glucose-mediated MC proliferation. Higher glucosamine concentrations (0.25-10 mM) caused MC apoptosis after 48 h, and, in addition, GFAT overexpression also increased MC apoptosis (TdT-dUTP nick end-labeling-positive cells: 3.8 ± 0.3 vs. 1.1 ± 0.2{\%} for empty vector; P < 0.05). Hence, hexosamine flux is an important determinant of MC proliferation and apoptosis. The proliferative response to high glucose and hexosamine flux is rapamycin-sensitive, suggesting that this effect is associated with signaling through rapamycin-sensitive mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1).",
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N2 - Cells exposed to high glucose may undergo hypertrophy, proliferation, and apoptosis, but the role of hexosamine flux in mediating these effects has not been fully elucidated. Accordingly, we studied the effects of glucose and glucosamine on rat glomerular mesangial cells (MC) turnover. Compared with physiological glucose (5.6 mM), treatment with high glucose (25 mM) for 24 h stimulated MC proliferation, an effect that was mimicked by exposure to low concentrations of glucosamine (0.05 mM). The percentage of cells in G 0/G1 phase of the cell cycle was reduced with a concomitant increase of the number of cells in G2/M phase. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen, phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin [phospho-mTOR (Ser2448)], and total regulatory-associated protein of mTOR were increased by high glucose and glucosamine treatment. Inhibition of glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT), the rate-limiting enzyme for hexosamine flux, with 6-diazo-5-oxonorleucine (10 μM) and of mTOR with rapamycin both attenuated glucose-mediated MC proliferation. Higher glucosamine concentrations (0.25-10 mM) caused MC apoptosis after 48 h, and, in addition, GFAT overexpression also increased MC apoptosis (TdT-dUTP nick end-labeling-positive cells: 3.8 ± 0.3 vs. 1.1 ± 0.2% for empty vector; P < 0.05). Hence, hexosamine flux is an important determinant of MC proliferation and apoptosis. The proliferative response to high glucose and hexosamine flux is rapamycin-sensitive, suggesting that this effect is associated with signaling through rapamycin-sensitive mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1).

AB - Cells exposed to high glucose may undergo hypertrophy, proliferation, and apoptosis, but the role of hexosamine flux in mediating these effects has not been fully elucidated. Accordingly, we studied the effects of glucose and glucosamine on rat glomerular mesangial cells (MC) turnover. Compared with physiological glucose (5.6 mM), treatment with high glucose (25 mM) for 24 h stimulated MC proliferation, an effect that was mimicked by exposure to low concentrations of glucosamine (0.05 mM). The percentage of cells in G 0/G1 phase of the cell cycle was reduced with a concomitant increase of the number of cells in G2/M phase. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen, phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin [phospho-mTOR (Ser2448)], and total regulatory-associated protein of mTOR were increased by high glucose and glucosamine treatment. Inhibition of glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT), the rate-limiting enzyme for hexosamine flux, with 6-diazo-5-oxonorleucine (10 μM) and of mTOR with rapamycin both attenuated glucose-mediated MC proliferation. Higher glucosamine concentrations (0.25-10 mM) caused MC apoptosis after 48 h, and, in addition, GFAT overexpression also increased MC apoptosis (TdT-dUTP nick end-labeling-positive cells: 3.8 ± 0.3 vs. 1.1 ± 0.2% for empty vector; P < 0.05). Hence, hexosamine flux is an important determinant of MC proliferation and apoptosis. The proliferative response to high glucose and hexosamine flux is rapamycin-sensitive, suggesting that this effect is associated with signaling through rapamycin-sensitive mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1).

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