Sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) and thrombin are agents with profound but divergent effects on vascular endothelial cell (EC) barrier properties. We have previously reported that S1P-induced focal adhesion (FA) remodeling involves interactions between focal adhesion kinase (FAK), paxillin, and G-protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting proteins GIT1 and GIT2 and suggested a critical involvement of focal adhesions in the EC barrier regulation. In this study, we examined redistribution of FA proteins (FAK, paxillin, GIT1, and GIT2) and site-specific FAK tyrosine phosphorylation in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells stimulated with thrombin. In contrast to S1P, which we have shown to induce peripheral translocation of FA proteins associated with cortical actin ring formation, thrombin caused the redistribution of FA proteins to the ends of the newly formed massive stress fibers. S1P and thrombin induced distinct patterns of FAK site-specific phosphorylation with the FAK y576 phosphorylation site targeted by SIP challenge and phosphorylation of three FAK sites (Y397, Y 576, and Y925) in response to thrombin stimulation. Pharmacological inhibition of Src with Src-specific inhibitor PP2 abolished S1P-induced translocation of FA proteins, cortical actin ring formation, and FAK [Y576] phosphorylation. However, PP2 failed to alter thrombin-induced morphological changes and exhibited only partial inhibition of FAK site-specific tyrosine phosphorylation. These observations highlight the differential mechanisms of focal adhesion protein complex remodeling and FAK activation by S1P and thrombin and link differential FA remodeling to EC barrier regulation.
- Barrier function
- Human pulmonary artery endothelium
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology