Lymphomas are malignancies whose cell surface phenotype and pattern of gene expression largely (but not completely) reflect a cell frozen at a discrete stage of normal lymphoid cell differentiation. At diagnosis, excisional (not incisional or aspirate) biopsies should be obtained with half the specimen fixed in formalin for light microscopy and half placed in saline and flash-frozen for specialized surface phenotype, gene expression, or gene rearrangement studies. Detection of particular cell surface antigens by monoclonal antibody binding, distinctive rearrangements of receptor genes or oncogenes by Southern analysis of polymerase chain reaction amplification, and unique patterns of protein expression all can be used to define an individual case as a member of a discrete clinicopathologic entity in nearly all cases. Serum markers can provide information about prognosis and often can be followed as surrogate markers of tumour burden. The role of cytokines in the pathogenesis and progression of lymphomas is just beginning to be explored and may provide additional diagnostic and therapeutic insights in the near future.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||22|
|Journal||Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America|
|State||Published - Jan 1 1994|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy