Segmental liver resection and locoregional ablative therapies are dependent upon accurate tumor localization to ensure safety as well as acceptable oncologic results. Because of the liver's limited external landmarks and complex internal anatomy, such tumor localization poses a technical challenge. Image guided therapies (IGT) address this problem by mapping the real-time, intraoperative position of surgical instruments onto preoperative tomographic imaging through a process called registration. Accuracy is critical to IGT and is a function of: 1) the registration technique, 2) the tissue characteristics, and 3) imaging techniques. The purpose of this study is to validate a novel method of registration using an endoscopic Laser Range Scanner (eLRS) and demonstrate its applicability to laparoscopic liver surgery. Six radiopaque targets were inserted into an ex-vivo bovine liver and a computed tomography (CT) scan was obtained. Using the eLRS, the liver surface was scanned and a surface-based registration was constructed to predict the position of the intraparenchymal targets. The target registration error (TRE) achieved using our surface-based registration was 2.4 ± 1.0 mm. A comparable TRE using traditional fiducial-based registration was 2.6 ± 1.7 mm. Compared to traditional fiducial-based registration, laparoscopic surface scanning is able to predict the location of intraparenchymal liver targets with similar accuracy and rate of data acquisition.
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