LGI1, a putative tumor metastasis suppressor gene, controls in Vitro invasiveness and expression of matrix metalloproteinases in glioma cells through the ERK1/2 pathway

Padmaja Kunapuli, Chitta S. Kasyapa, Lesleyann Hawthorn, John K. Cowell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

82 Scopus citations


Gliomas take a number of different genetic routes in the progression to glioblastoma multiforme, a highly invasive variant that is mostly unresponsive to current therapies. Gliomas express elevated levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which have been implicated in the control of proliferation and invasion as well as neovascularization. Progressive loss of LGI1 expression has been associated with the development of high grade gliomas. We have shown previously that the forced re-expression of LGI1 in different glioma cells inhibits proliferation, invasiveness, and anchorage-independent growth in cells null for its expression. Here, using Affymetrix gene chip analysis, we show that reexpression of LGI1 in T98G cells results in the down-regulation of several MMP genes, in particular MMP1 and MMP3. LGI1 expression also results in the inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation but not p38 phosphorylation. Inhibition of the MAPK pathway using the pharmacological inhibitors PD98059, UO126, and SB203580 in T98G LGI1-null cells inhibits MMP1 and MMP3 production in an ERK1/2-dependent manner. Treatment of LGI1-expressing cells with phorbol myristate acetate prevents the inhibition of MMP1/3 and restores invasiveness and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting that LGI1 acts through the ERK/MAPK pathway. Furthermore, LGI1 expression promotes phosphorylation of AKT, which leads to phosphorylation of Raf1 Ser-259, an event shown previously to negatively regulate ERK1/2 signaling. These data suggest that LGI1 plays a major role in suppressing the production of MMP1/3 through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/ERK pathway. Loss of LGI1 expression, therefore, may be an important event in the progression of gliomas that leads to a more invasive phenotype in these cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)23151-23157
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Issue number22
StatePublished - May 28 2004
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

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