Bone is the most common site to which breast cancer cells metastasize. We found that osteoblast-like MG63 cells and human bone tissue contain the bile acid salt sodium deoxycholate (DC). MG63 cells take up and accumulate DC from the medium, suggesting that the bone-derived DC originates from serum. DC released from MG63 cells or bone tissue promotes cell survival and induces the migration of metastatic human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. The bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) antagonist Z-guggulsterone prevents the migration of these cells and induces apoptosis. DC increases the gene expression of FXR and induces its translocation to the nucleus of MDA-MB-231 cells. Nuclear translocation of FXR is concurrent with the increase of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and the formation of F-actin, two factors critical for the migration of breast cancer cells. Our results suggest a novel mechanism by which DC-induced increase of uPA and binding to the uPA receptor of the same breast cancer cell self-propel its migration and metastasis to the bone.
- Bile acids
- Farnesoid X receptor
- Urokinase-type plasminogen activator
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology