Long-term follow-up results of hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone (Hyper-CVAD), a dose-intensive regimen, in adult acute lymphocytic leukemia

Hagop Kantarjian, Deborah Thomas, Susan O'Brien, Jorge Cortes, Francis Giles, Sima Jeha, Carlos E. Bueso-Ramos, Sherry Pierce, Jianqin Shan, Charles Koller, Miloslav Beran, Michael Keating, Emil J. Freireich

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364 Scopus citations

Abstract

BACKGROUND. Modern intensive chemotherapy regimens have improved the prognosis for patients with adult acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). With these regimens, the complete response rates are now reported to be > 80%, and the long-term survival rates range from 30% to 45%. The current analysis updated the long-term results with the original hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone (Hyper-CVAD) program, with a median follow-up time of 63 months. METHODS. Between 1992 and 2000, 288 patients were treated with Hyper-CVAD. The median age of the patients was 40 years, and 59 patients (20%) were ≥ age 60 years. The incidence of Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-positive ALL was 17%, and the incidence of of T-cell ALL was 13%. RESULTS. A complete response (CR) was achieved in 92% of patients. The induction mortality rate was 5% (2% if the patient's age was < 60 years, and 15% if the patient's age was ≥ 60 years). With a median follow-up time of 63 months, the 5-year survival rate was 38% and the 5-year CR duration rate was 38%. Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors for CR duration identified the following adverse factors: age ≥ 45 years, leukocytosis ≥ 50 × 109/L, poor performance status (an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score of 3-4), Ph-positive disease, French-American-British L2 morphology, > 1 course to achieve CR, and Day 14 bone marrow blasts > 5%. Patients were divided into low-risk (risk score 0-1; 37%), intermediate risk (risk score 2-3; 36%), and poor-risk groups (risk score ≥ 4; 27%) with 5-year CR duration rates of 52%, 37%, and 10%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS. Compared with the previous VAD regimens, Hyper-CVAD was associated with significantly better CR rates, CR duration, and survival. The long-term follow-up results of Hyper-CVAD were favorable. Comparison of Hyper-CVAD with other established adult ALL regimens is warranted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2788-2801
Number of pages14
JournalCancer
Volume101
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 15 2004
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)
  • And dexamethasone (Hyper-CVAD) regimen
  • Doxorubicin
  • Hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide
  • Long-term follow-up
  • Vincristine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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    Kantarjian, H., Thomas, D., O'Brien, S., Cortes, J., Giles, F., Jeha, S., Bueso-Ramos, C. E., Pierce, S., Shan, J., Koller, C., Beran, M., Keating, M., & Freireich, E. J. (2004). Long-term follow-up results of hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone (Hyper-CVAD), a dose-intensive regimen, in adult acute lymphocytic leukemia. Cancer, 101(12), 2788-2801. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.20668