Major challenges and potential microenvironment-targeted therapies in glioblastoma

Ali S. Arbab, Mohammad H. Rashid, Kartik Angara, Thaiz F. Borin, Ping Chang Lin, Meenu Jain, Bhagelu R. Achyut

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Glioblastoma (GBM) is considered one of the most malignant, genetically heterogeneous, and therapy-resistant solid tumor. Therapeutic options are limited in GBM and involve surgical resection followed by chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Adjuvant therapies, including antiangiogenic treatments (AATs) targeting the VEGF–VEGFR pathway, have witnessed enhanced infiltration of bone marrow-derived myeloid cells, causing therapy resistance and tumor relapse in clinics and in preclinical models of GBM. This review article is focused on gathering previous clinical and preclinical reports featuring major challenges and lessons in GBM. Potential combination therapies targeting the tumor microenvironment (TME) to overcome the myeloid cell-mediated resistance problem in GBM are discussed. Future directions are focused on the use of TME-directed therapies in combination with standard therapy in clinical trials, and the exploration of novel therapies and GBM models for preclinical studies. We believe this review will guide the future of GBM research and therapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2732
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 16 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Antiangiogenic therapy
  • Bone marrow-derived cells
  • Glioblastoma
  • Myeloid cells
  • Neovascularization
  • Resistance
  • Tumor microenvironment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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