Immune thrombocytopenia resulting from antibody-mediated platelet destruction combined with impaired platelet production is a common cause of thrombocytopenia. The decision to treat newly diagnosed patients is based on several factors including ceasing hemorrhagic manifestations, increasing the platelet count, prevention of bleeding, and inducing remission. Current standard first-line therapy is a course of corticosteroids. Although this treatment paradigm increases the platelet count in the majority of patients, a high percentage relapse after discontinuation of corticosteroid therapy. For this reason, intensification of first-line therapy that results in superior long-term remission rates would be desirable. This manuscript focuses primarily on adults with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), highlighting pediatric data and practice when applicable. The primary aim is to outline upfront strategies for treatment-naive patients with ITP to enhance remission rates, taking into account assessment of the risks and benefits of these approaches.
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