Maternal impact on egg development in lymnaea stagnalis: A growth factor is produced by the albumen gland in the reproductive tract

Gregg Thomas Nagle, David B.G. Akalal, Sherry D. Painter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Scopus citations


In the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis, perivitellin fluid is the main source of nutrition for developing embryos; it contains predominantly galactogen and proteins. The fluid is produced by the albumen gland, a large exocrine organ in the female reproductive tract. To further define the protein products of this gland and provide more information about the maternal contribution to egg development, albumen glands were extracted and the extracts purified by reversed-phase HPLC. One major HPLC peak fraction exhibited neurotrophic activity when bioassayed on identified Lymnaea neurons in vitro; it has been partially sequenced and has the highest degree of sequence identity with epidermal growth factor (EGF). These results demonstrate that a growth factor with neurotrophic activity is produced by the albumen gland, and is packaged along with the eggs to serve a growth-promoting function in the embryo.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)171-174
Number of pages4
JournalInvertebrate Reproduction and Development
Issue number1-3
StatePublished - Jan 1 1999
Externally publishedYes



  • Albumen gland
  • Freshwater mollusk
  • Growth factor
  • Reproduction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Developmental Biology

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