Medicinal mushroom Lingzhi or Reishi, Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt. Fr.) P. Karst., β-glucan induces toll-like receptors and fails to induce inflammatory cytokines in NF-κB inhibitor-Treated macrophages

Sainkhuu Batbayar, Mi Jeong Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

β-Glucan of medicinal Lingzhi or Reishi mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (BGG), possesses immunostimulatory and anti-tumor activities. Innate immune cells are activated by the binding of β-glucan to the dectin-1 receptor. The present study investigated the immunostimulating activities of BGG, including binding to dectin-1, secretion of cytokines and reactive oxygen species, and induction of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in RAW264.7 mouse macrophages. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry were used for the cytokine and TLR analyses. A mouse inflammation antibody array was used for protein-level cytokine analysis. BGG bound to dectin-1 and induced RAW264.7 cell secretion of several cytokines, including granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, interleukin (IL)-6, regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. The secretion of these cytokines was further increased by the addition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). BGG also induced both nitric oxide and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Treatment with an inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) reduced the induction of IL-1, IL-6, and iNOS in a concentration-dependent manner. Expressions of TLR2, TLR4, and TLR6 were increased by BGG treatment, and addition of LPS induced further induction of TLR4 and TLR6. Our result indicates that BGG induces macrophage secretion of inflammatory cytokines, which can be potentiated by the presence of LPS, likely by binding to dectin-1 and TLR-2/6 receptors, which activate NF-κB and prompt the secretion of cytokines.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)213-225
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Volume13
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 12 2011
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Reishi
Glucans
NF-kappa B
Toll-Like Receptors
Agaricales
Macrophages
Cytokines
Lipopolysaccharides
Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
Toll-Like Receptor 6
Interleukin-6
Toll-Like Receptor 2
Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1
Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor
Interleukin-1
Reverse Transcription
Reactive Oxygen Species
Flow Cytometry
Nitric Oxide
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha

Keywords

  • Cytokine
  • Dectin-1
  • Ganoderma lucidum
  • Glucan
  • Lingzhi or Reishi mushroom
  • Medicinal mushrooms
  • NF-κB
  • Toll-like receptor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Discovery

Cite this

@article{5f26cf8b0a224136a79c9d6e1d573233,
title = "Medicinal mushroom Lingzhi or Reishi, Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.: Fr.) P. Karst., β-glucan induces toll-like receptors and fails to induce inflammatory cytokines in NF-κB inhibitor-Treated macrophages",
abstract = "β-Glucan of medicinal Lingzhi or Reishi mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (BGG), possesses immunostimulatory and anti-tumor activities. Innate immune cells are activated by the binding of β-glucan to the dectin-1 receptor. The present study investigated the immunostimulating activities of BGG, including binding to dectin-1, secretion of cytokines and reactive oxygen species, and induction of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in RAW264.7 mouse macrophages. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry were used for the cytokine and TLR analyses. A mouse inflammation antibody array was used for protein-level cytokine analysis. BGG bound to dectin-1 and induced RAW264.7 cell secretion of several cytokines, including granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, interleukin (IL)-6, regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. The secretion of these cytokines was further increased by the addition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). BGG also induced both nitric oxide and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Treatment with an inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) reduced the induction of IL-1, IL-6, and iNOS in a concentration-dependent manner. Expressions of TLR2, TLR4, and TLR6 were increased by BGG treatment, and addition of LPS induced further induction of TLR4 and TLR6. Our result indicates that BGG induces macrophage secretion of inflammatory cytokines, which can be potentiated by the presence of LPS, likely by binding to dectin-1 and TLR-2/6 receptors, which activate NF-κB and prompt the secretion of cytokines.",
keywords = "Cytokine, Dectin-1, Ganoderma lucidum, Glucan, Lingzhi or Reishi mushroom, Medicinal mushrooms, NF-κB, Toll-like receptor",
author = "Sainkhuu Batbayar and Kim, {Mi Jeong}",
year = "2011",
month = "7",
day = "12",
doi = "10.1615/IntJMedMushr.v13.i3.10",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "13",
pages = "213--225",
journal = "International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms",
issn = "1521-9437",
publisher = "Begell House Inc.",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Medicinal mushroom Lingzhi or Reishi, Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.

T2 - Fr.) P. Karst., β-glucan induces toll-like receptors and fails to induce inflammatory cytokines in NF-κB inhibitor-Treated macrophages

AU - Batbayar, Sainkhuu

AU - Kim, Mi Jeong

PY - 2011/7/12

Y1 - 2011/7/12

N2 - β-Glucan of medicinal Lingzhi or Reishi mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (BGG), possesses immunostimulatory and anti-tumor activities. Innate immune cells are activated by the binding of β-glucan to the dectin-1 receptor. The present study investigated the immunostimulating activities of BGG, including binding to dectin-1, secretion of cytokines and reactive oxygen species, and induction of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in RAW264.7 mouse macrophages. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry were used for the cytokine and TLR analyses. A mouse inflammation antibody array was used for protein-level cytokine analysis. BGG bound to dectin-1 and induced RAW264.7 cell secretion of several cytokines, including granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, interleukin (IL)-6, regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. The secretion of these cytokines was further increased by the addition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). BGG also induced both nitric oxide and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Treatment with an inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) reduced the induction of IL-1, IL-6, and iNOS in a concentration-dependent manner. Expressions of TLR2, TLR4, and TLR6 were increased by BGG treatment, and addition of LPS induced further induction of TLR4 and TLR6. Our result indicates that BGG induces macrophage secretion of inflammatory cytokines, which can be potentiated by the presence of LPS, likely by binding to dectin-1 and TLR-2/6 receptors, which activate NF-κB and prompt the secretion of cytokines.

AB - β-Glucan of medicinal Lingzhi or Reishi mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (BGG), possesses immunostimulatory and anti-tumor activities. Innate immune cells are activated by the binding of β-glucan to the dectin-1 receptor. The present study investigated the immunostimulating activities of BGG, including binding to dectin-1, secretion of cytokines and reactive oxygen species, and induction of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in RAW264.7 mouse macrophages. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry were used for the cytokine and TLR analyses. A mouse inflammation antibody array was used for protein-level cytokine analysis. BGG bound to dectin-1 and induced RAW264.7 cell secretion of several cytokines, including granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, interleukin (IL)-6, regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. The secretion of these cytokines was further increased by the addition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). BGG also induced both nitric oxide and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Treatment with an inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) reduced the induction of IL-1, IL-6, and iNOS in a concentration-dependent manner. Expressions of TLR2, TLR4, and TLR6 were increased by BGG treatment, and addition of LPS induced further induction of TLR4 and TLR6. Our result indicates that BGG induces macrophage secretion of inflammatory cytokines, which can be potentiated by the presence of LPS, likely by binding to dectin-1 and TLR-2/6 receptors, which activate NF-κB and prompt the secretion of cytokines.

KW - Cytokine

KW - Dectin-1

KW - Ganoderma lucidum

KW - Glucan

KW - Lingzhi or Reishi mushroom

KW - Medicinal mushrooms

KW - NF-κB

KW - Toll-like receptor

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=79960068491&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=79960068491&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1615/IntJMedMushr.v13.i3.10

DO - 10.1615/IntJMedMushr.v13.i3.10

M3 - Article

C2 - 22135873

AN - SCOPUS:79960068491

VL - 13

SP - 213

EP - 225

JO - International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms

JF - International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms

SN - 1521-9437

IS - 3

ER -