Meta-analysis of insomnia, suicide, and psychopathology in schizophrenia

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PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Insomnia is common in schizophrenia. Insomnia has been associated with suicidal ideation and behavior, as well as greater severity of psychopathology, in schizophrenia. This review performs a meta-analysis of associations between insomnia, suicide, and psychopathology in patients with schizophrenia.

RECENT FINDINGS: We searched major electronic databases from inception until November 2022 for studies of insomnia, suicide, and psychopathology in patients with schizophrenia. Random effects meta-analysis calculating odds ratios (ORs, for suicide) and effect sizes (ESs, for psychopathology) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were performed. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria, comprising 3428 patients with schizophrenia. Insomnia was associated with a significant increased odds of suicidal ideation (OR = 1.84, 95% CI 1.28-2.65, P < 0.01) and suicide attempt or death (OR = 5.83, 95% CI 1.61-2.96, P < 0.01). Insomnia was also associated with total (ES = 0.16, 95% CI 0.09-0.23, P < 0.01), positive (ES = 0.14, 95% CI 0.08-0.20, P = 0.02), and general (ES = 0.17, 95% CI 0.08-0.27, P < 0.01) psychopathology. In meta-regression analyses, BMI was negatively associated with suicidal ideation. Otherwise, age, sex, and study year were all unrelated to the associations.

SUMMARY: Insomnia is associated with suicide and psychopathology in schizophrenia. Formal assessment and treatment of insomnia appears relevant to the clinical care of schizophrenia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalCurrent Opinion in Psychiatry
Early online dateJan 25 2023
StatePublished - Jan 25 2023


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