Micro-calibration of space and motion by photoreceptors synchronized in parallel with cortical oscillations

A unified theory of visual perception

Ravinder Jerath, Shannon M. Cearley, Vernon A Barnes, Michael A Jensen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

A fundamental function of the visual system is detecting motion, yet visual perception is poorly understood. Current research has determined that the retina and ganglion cells elicit responses for motion detection; however, the underlying mechanism for this is incompletely understood. Previously we proposed that retinogeniculo-cortical oscillations and photoreceptors work in parallel to process vision. Here we propose that motion could also be processed within the retina, and not in the brain as current theory suggests. In this paper, we discuss: 1) internal neural space formation; 2) primary, secondary, and tertiary roles of vision; 3) gamma as the secondary role; and 4) synchronization and coherence. Movement within the external field is instantly detected by primary processing within the space formed by the retina, providing a unified view of the world from an internal point of view. Our new theory begins to answer questions about: 1) perception of space, erect images, and motion, 2) purpose of lateral inhibition, 3) speed of visual perception, and 4) how peripheral color vision occurs without a large population of cones located peripherally in the retina. We explain that strong oscillatory activity influences on brain activity and is necessary for: 1) visual processing, and 2) formation of the internal visuospatial area necessary for visual consciousness, which could allow rods to receive precise visual and visuospatial information, while retinal waves could link the lateral geniculate body with the cortex to form a neural space formed by membrane potential-based oscillations and photoreceptors. We propose that vision is tripartite, with three components that allow a person to make sense of the world, terming them “primary, secondary, and tertiary roles” of vision. Finally, we propose that Gamma waves that are higher in strength and volume allow communication among the retina, thalamus, and various areas of the cortex, and synchronization brings cortical faculties to the retina, while the thalamus is the link that couples the retina to the rest of the brain through activity by gamma oscillations. This novel theory lays groundwork for further research by providing a theoretical understanding that expands upon the functions of the retina, photoreceptors, and retinal plexus to include parallel processing needed to form the internal visual space that we perceive as the external world.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)71-75
Number of pages5
JournalMedical Hypotheses
Volume110
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018

Fingerprint

Visual Perception
Calibration
Retina
Thalamus
Brain
Cortical Synchronization
Space Perception
Geniculate Bodies
Color Vision
Vertebrate Photoreceptor Cells
Consciousness
Research
Ganglia
Membrane Potentials
Communication

Keywords

  • Gamma oscillations
  • Lateral inhibition
  • Photoreceptors
  • Retina
  • Retinogeniculo-cortical oscillations

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Micro-calibration of space and motion by photoreceptors synchronized in parallel with cortical oscillations : A unified theory of visual perception. / Jerath, Ravinder; Cearley, Shannon M.; Barnes, Vernon A; Jensen, Michael A.

In: Medical Hypotheses, Vol. 110, 01.01.2018, p. 71-75.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{ec746af71ab241fea04e5c59b43fad7f,
title = "Micro-calibration of space and motion by photoreceptors synchronized in parallel with cortical oscillations: A unified theory of visual perception",
abstract = "A fundamental function of the visual system is detecting motion, yet visual perception is poorly understood. Current research has determined that the retina and ganglion cells elicit responses for motion detection; however, the underlying mechanism for this is incompletely understood. Previously we proposed that retinogeniculo-cortical oscillations and photoreceptors work in parallel to process vision. Here we propose that motion could also be processed within the retina, and not in the brain as current theory suggests. In this paper, we discuss: 1) internal neural space formation; 2) primary, secondary, and tertiary roles of vision; 3) gamma as the secondary role; and 4) synchronization and coherence. Movement within the external field is instantly detected by primary processing within the space formed by the retina, providing a unified view of the world from an internal point of view. Our new theory begins to answer questions about: 1) perception of space, erect images, and motion, 2) purpose of lateral inhibition, 3) speed of visual perception, and 4) how peripheral color vision occurs without a large population of cones located peripherally in the retina. We explain that strong oscillatory activity influences on brain activity and is necessary for: 1) visual processing, and 2) formation of the internal visuospatial area necessary for visual consciousness, which could allow rods to receive precise visual and visuospatial information, while retinal waves could link the lateral geniculate body with the cortex to form a neural space formed by membrane potential-based oscillations and photoreceptors. We propose that vision is tripartite, with three components that allow a person to make sense of the world, terming them “primary, secondary, and tertiary roles” of vision. Finally, we propose that Gamma waves that are higher in strength and volume allow communication among the retina, thalamus, and various areas of the cortex, and synchronization brings cortical faculties to the retina, while the thalamus is the link that couples the retina to the rest of the brain through activity by gamma oscillations. This novel theory lays groundwork for further research by providing a theoretical understanding that expands upon the functions of the retina, photoreceptors, and retinal plexus to include parallel processing needed to form the internal visual space that we perceive as the external world.",
keywords = "Gamma oscillations, Lateral inhibition, Photoreceptors, Retina, Retinogeniculo-cortical oscillations",
author = "Ravinder Jerath and Cearley, {Shannon M.} and Barnes, {Vernon A} and Jensen, {Michael A}",
year = "2018",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.mehy.2017.11.005",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "110",
pages = "71--75",
journal = "Medical Hypotheses",
issn = "0306-9877",
publisher = "Churchill Livingstone",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Micro-calibration of space and motion by photoreceptors synchronized in parallel with cortical oscillations

T2 - A unified theory of visual perception

AU - Jerath, Ravinder

AU - Cearley, Shannon M.

AU - Barnes, Vernon A

AU - Jensen, Michael A

PY - 2018/1/1

Y1 - 2018/1/1

N2 - A fundamental function of the visual system is detecting motion, yet visual perception is poorly understood. Current research has determined that the retina and ganglion cells elicit responses for motion detection; however, the underlying mechanism for this is incompletely understood. Previously we proposed that retinogeniculo-cortical oscillations and photoreceptors work in parallel to process vision. Here we propose that motion could also be processed within the retina, and not in the brain as current theory suggests. In this paper, we discuss: 1) internal neural space formation; 2) primary, secondary, and tertiary roles of vision; 3) gamma as the secondary role; and 4) synchronization and coherence. Movement within the external field is instantly detected by primary processing within the space formed by the retina, providing a unified view of the world from an internal point of view. Our new theory begins to answer questions about: 1) perception of space, erect images, and motion, 2) purpose of lateral inhibition, 3) speed of visual perception, and 4) how peripheral color vision occurs without a large population of cones located peripherally in the retina. We explain that strong oscillatory activity influences on brain activity and is necessary for: 1) visual processing, and 2) formation of the internal visuospatial area necessary for visual consciousness, which could allow rods to receive precise visual and visuospatial information, while retinal waves could link the lateral geniculate body with the cortex to form a neural space formed by membrane potential-based oscillations and photoreceptors. We propose that vision is tripartite, with three components that allow a person to make sense of the world, terming them “primary, secondary, and tertiary roles” of vision. Finally, we propose that Gamma waves that are higher in strength and volume allow communication among the retina, thalamus, and various areas of the cortex, and synchronization brings cortical faculties to the retina, while the thalamus is the link that couples the retina to the rest of the brain through activity by gamma oscillations. This novel theory lays groundwork for further research by providing a theoretical understanding that expands upon the functions of the retina, photoreceptors, and retinal plexus to include parallel processing needed to form the internal visual space that we perceive as the external world.

AB - A fundamental function of the visual system is detecting motion, yet visual perception is poorly understood. Current research has determined that the retina and ganglion cells elicit responses for motion detection; however, the underlying mechanism for this is incompletely understood. Previously we proposed that retinogeniculo-cortical oscillations and photoreceptors work in parallel to process vision. Here we propose that motion could also be processed within the retina, and not in the brain as current theory suggests. In this paper, we discuss: 1) internal neural space formation; 2) primary, secondary, and tertiary roles of vision; 3) gamma as the secondary role; and 4) synchronization and coherence. Movement within the external field is instantly detected by primary processing within the space formed by the retina, providing a unified view of the world from an internal point of view. Our new theory begins to answer questions about: 1) perception of space, erect images, and motion, 2) purpose of lateral inhibition, 3) speed of visual perception, and 4) how peripheral color vision occurs without a large population of cones located peripherally in the retina. We explain that strong oscillatory activity influences on brain activity and is necessary for: 1) visual processing, and 2) formation of the internal visuospatial area necessary for visual consciousness, which could allow rods to receive precise visual and visuospatial information, while retinal waves could link the lateral geniculate body with the cortex to form a neural space formed by membrane potential-based oscillations and photoreceptors. We propose that vision is tripartite, with three components that allow a person to make sense of the world, terming them “primary, secondary, and tertiary roles” of vision. Finally, we propose that Gamma waves that are higher in strength and volume allow communication among the retina, thalamus, and various areas of the cortex, and synchronization brings cortical faculties to the retina, while the thalamus is the link that couples the retina to the rest of the brain through activity by gamma oscillations. This novel theory lays groundwork for further research by providing a theoretical understanding that expands upon the functions of the retina, photoreceptors, and retinal plexus to include parallel processing needed to form the internal visual space that we perceive as the external world.

KW - Gamma oscillations

KW - Lateral inhibition

KW - Photoreceptors

KW - Retina

KW - Retinogeniculo-cortical oscillations

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85034068800&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85034068800&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.mehy.2017.11.005

DO - 10.1016/j.mehy.2017.11.005

M3 - Article

VL - 110

SP - 71

EP - 75

JO - Medical Hypotheses

JF - Medical Hypotheses

SN - 0306-9877

ER -