Heart failure is thought to be more common and of greater severity in African-Americans (AAs). Potential mechanisms remain uncertain. The importance of micronutrient deficiencies in the pathophysiologic expression of congestive heart failure (CHF) in AAs remains to be explored, including hypovitaminosis D, which can promote secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), together with hypozincemia and hyposelenemia, the 2 most crucial trace minerals integral to diverse biologic functions. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), Zn, and Se were monitored in 30 AAs hospitalized during June through December 2005, with decompensated failure and reduced ejection fraction (EF) (<35%) of predominantly nonischemic origin treated with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), furosemide, and spironolactone. Based on their symptomatic status before hospitalization, 15 patients were stratified as having protracted (≥4 weeks) CHF, whereas 15 patients had short-term (1-2 weeks) CHF. These hospitalized patients were compared with 10 AA outpatients with stable, similarly treated compensated failure and comparable EF, and 9 AA normal volunteers without cardiovascular disease. Serum PTH was elevated in all patients with protracted CHF and in 60% of patients with short-term CHF, but not in compensated patients or normal volunteers. However, serum 25(OH)D was reduced in all patients with ≥4 weeks and 80% with either 1-2 weeks CHF or compensated failure compared with volunteers. Serum Zn was below normal in 11 of 15 patients with protracted CHF, in 8 of 15 patients with shorter duration CHF, and in 5 of 10 patients with compensated failure. Serum Se was reduced in all patients with ≥4 weeks, 60% with short-term CHF, and 90% of compensated patients. Concomitant to hypovitaminosis D, hypozincemia, and hyposelenemia, SHPT is a covariant of CHF in housebound AAs.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Biochemistry, medical
- Physiology (medical)