MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs showing a tissue-specific expression pattern, and whose function is to suppress protein synthesis. In this study, we hypothesized that expression of miRNAs would differ among fibroblasts from dental pulp (DPF), gingiva (GF) and periodontal ligament (PLF) in vitro. Once established by an explant technique, DPF, GF and PLF were collected for RNA isolation and subjected to a miRNA microarray. Next, cells were stimulated with E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 24 h and then collected for RNA isolation. Expression of miR-146a and miR-155 was investigated by qPCR. Microarray screening revealed several miRNAs that showed specifically high expression in at least one of the fibroblast subtypes. These molecules are potentially involved in the regulation of extracellular matrix turnover and production of inflammatory mediators. Microarray analysis showed that both miR-146a and miR-155 were among the miRNAs expressed exclusively in GF. qPCR demonstrated significant upregulation of miR-146a only in GF after LPS stimulation, whereas basal expression of miR-155 was higher in GF than in the other cell subtypes. LPS downregulated the expression of miR-155 only in GF. Our results suggest that the expression and regulation of miR-146a and miR-155 are more pronounced in GF than in DPF and PLF.
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