Mixed chimerism and graft failure following conditioning with the fludarabine and cyclophosphamide nonablative regimen; conversion to full donor chimerism

Anand P. Jillella, Danielle Shafer, Thomas R. Klumpp, Robert V.B. Emmons, Kenneth F. Mangan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Scopus citations


Twenty-one patients with hematologic malignancies were treated with the fludarabine (120-125 mg/m2) and cyclophosphamide (120 mg/kg) nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen. Graft versus host disease (GVHD) and graft rejection prophylaxis was with tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. Thirteen of the 21 patients (62%) had mixed chimerism (≤90% donor cells) at day 60 and 11 (52%) of these patients had mixed chimerism which persisted until day 100. Immunosuppression was discontinued in 12 of 13 patients and two of them converted to full chimerism by day 100. Eight patients received a donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) and five of them converted to full donor chimerism with DLI alone. Two patients were given GM-CSF in addition to a DLI with conversion to full donor chimerism. Three patients (14%) had graft failure requiring a second transplant using fludarabine (125 mg/m2) and melphalan (140 mg/m2): With a median followup of 2.8 years, 15 patients are alive - one with disease and 14 with no disease. Two patients died of acute GVHD, one of chronic GVHD, and three due to progressive disease. We conclude that the nonmyeloablative fludarabine/cyclophosphamide regimen results in a significant incidence of mixed chimerism and graft rejection but is well tolerated. We suggest a more intense regimen, such as fludarabine and melphalan, be used in patients with a high risk of early disease progression to establish early engraftment and graft versus tumor effect.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)419-426
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Hematology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1 2007



  • Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Fludarabine
  • Graft failure
  • Graft rejection
  • Mini transplant
  • Mixed chimerism
  • Nonmyeloablative transplant

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology

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